Anna-Maija Haapala

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BACKGROUND The populations in adjacent Russian Karelia and Finland are equally exposed to grain products and share partly the same ancestry, but live in completely different socioeconomic environments. AIM This creates an ideal epidemiological setting to study gene-environmental interactions in pathogenesis of celiac disease. METHODS The prevalence of(More)
PURPOSE Glutamic acid decarboxylase antibodies (GADAs) have been detected in patients with epilepsy, but the clinical determinants of epilepsy associated with GADA have not been defined. METHODS We analyzed GADA with a radioimmunoassay in sera of 253 well-characterized patients with epilepsy and 200 control subjects. The positive samples were confirmed by(More)
BACKGROUND Human enterovirus 71 (HEV71) is a common cause of severe outbreaks of hand-foot- and mouth disease, aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in Asian populations but has not caused such epidemics in all populations. OBJECTIVES To analyze the frequency of HEV71 in the background childhood population in Finland by screening in stool and serum samples(More)
CONTEXT The mechanisms leading to thyroid autoimmunity are largely unknown. OBJECTIVE Our objective was to assess the role of environment in the development of thyroid autoimmunity. DESIGN Prevalence of thyroid autoantibodies in two neighboring populations living in completely different socioeconomic circumstances (Russian Karelia and Finland) was(More)
To examine the effect of maternal diet during pregnancy on allergic sensitization in the offspring by 5 yrs of age. The Finnish type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention Nutrition Study. A population-based cohort study with 5-yr follow-up. A total of 931 children with human leukocyte antigen-conferred susceptibility to type 1 diabetes for whom maternal(More)
BACKGROUND An increase in the prevalence of allergic conditions has been documented in Finland, correlating with the diminishing prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infections. We investigated whether the increase of allergic sensitisation still continues and correlates with the prevalence of H. pylori infections. METHODS The sera from 958 pregnant women in(More)
Celiac disease (CD) is a common immunologically mediated enteropathic condition manifesting in genetically predisposed individuals after exposure to wheat gluten. CD may be associated with a number of neurological disorders, and the prevalence of epilepsy is reported to be increased in patients with CD. We studied the prevalence of CD-associated antibodies(More)
OBJECTIVES Celiac disease develops gradually from lymphocytosis, crypt hyperplasia and minor villous atrophy to overt villous atrophy. It IS NOT known how such minor mucosal changes predict eventual celiac disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of intraepithelial lymphocytosis and marginally decreased villous height/crypt depth ratio in the(More)
OBJECTIVE The goal was to examine the relationship between age at the introduction of solid foods during the first year of life and allergic sensitization in 5-year-old children. METHODS We analyzed data from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention nutrition study, a prospective, birth cohort study. We studied 994 children with HLA-conferred(More)
BACKGROUND Emerging evidence questions current recommendations on the timing of infant feeding for the prevention of childhood allergies. The evidence for asthma is inconclusive. OBJECTIVE We sought to investigate the associations between the duration of breast-feeding and timing of introduction of complementary foods and the development of asthma and(More)