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Acquisition of the complement inhibitor vitronectin (Vn) is important for the respiratory tract pathogen nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) to escape complement-mediated killing. NTHi actively recruits Vn, and we previously showed that this interaction involves Protein E (PE). Here we describe a second Vn-binding protein, a 30 kDa Yersinia YfeA(More)
Factor I (FI) is a crucial inhibitor controlling all complement pathways due to its ability to degrade activated complement proteins C3b and C4b in the presence of cofactors such as factor H, C4b-binding protein, complement receptor 1 or CD46. Complete deficiency of FI, which is synthesized mainly in the liver is rare and leads to complement consumption(More)
Ongoing inflammation including activation of the complement system is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antimicrobial neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of secreted chromatin that may act as a source of autoantigens typical for SLE. In this study, we investigated how complement interacts with NETs and how NET degradation is(More)
We screened 29 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and found 16/21 strains that resisted killing by normal human serum and 0/8 serum sensitive strains that bound the complement regulator, C4b-binding protein (C4bp). Microbial surface-bound C4bp demonstrated cofactor activity. We constructed gonococcal strains with hybrid porin (Por) molecules derived from each(More)
Apoptosis, followed by rapid phagocytic clearance, is the primary mechanism by which organisms dispose of unwanted cells. The intracellular and extracellular composition of an apoptotic cell changes to decrease immunogenicity and enhance its uptake. By changing their extracellular composition, apoptotic cells acquire the capacity to bind complement(More)
The outer membrane protein Ail of Yersinia pestis mediates several virulence functions, including serum resistance. Here, we demonstrate that Ail binds C4b-binding protein (C4BP), the primary fluid-phase regulator of the classical and lectin pathways. Non-covalent binding of C4 and C4b to Ail was also observed. C4BP bound to Ail can act as a cofactor to the(More)
C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a regulator of the classical complement pathway C3 convertase (C4bC2a complex). It is a disulfide-linked polymer of seven alpha-chains and a unique beta-chain; the alpha- and beta-chains are composed of eight and three complement control protein (CCP) domains, respectively. To elucidate the importance of the polymeric nature of(More)
Complement is part of the innate immune defence and not only recognizes microbes but also unwanted host molecules to enhance phagocytosis and clearance. This process of opsonisation must be tightly regulated to prevent immunopathology. Endogenous ligands such as dying cells, extracellular matrix proteins, pentraxins, amyloid deposits, prions and DNA, all(More)
Meningitis caused by Escherichia coli K1 is a serious illness in neonates with neurological sequelae in up to 50% of survivors. A high degree of bacteremia is required for E. coli K1 to cross the blood-brain barrier, which suggests that the bacterium must evade the host defence mechanisms and survive in the bloodstream. We previously showed that outer(More)
Escherichia coli is an important pathogen that causes meningitis in neonates. The development of bacteremia preceding the traversal across the blood-brain barrier is a prerequisite for this pathogen that obviously must survive the bactericidal activity of serum. Here we report that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli contributes to serum(More)