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Ongoing inflammation including activation of the complement system is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antimicrobial neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of secreted chromatin that may act as a source of autoantigens typical for SLE. In this study, we investigated how complement interacts with NETs and how NET degradation is(More)
We screened 29 strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and found 16/21 strains that resisted killing by normal human serum and 0/8 serum sensitive strains that bound the complement regulator, C4b-binding protein (C4bp). Microbial surface-bound C4bp demonstrated cofactor activity. We constructed gonococcal strains with hybrid porin (Por) molecules derived from each(More)
Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) commonly causes local disease in the upper and lower respiratory tract and has recently been shown to interfere with both the classical and alternative pathways of complement activation. The terminal pathway of the complement system is regulated by vitronectin that is a component of both plasma and the extracellular(More)
Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is a pathogen that causes severe local and life-threatening invasive diseases, which are associated with high mortality rates. Pneumococci have evolved several strategies to evade the host immune system, including complement to disseminate and to survive in various host niches. Thus, pneumococci bind complement(More)
Escherichia coli is an important pathogen that causes meningitis in neonates. The development of bacteremia preceding the traversal across the blood-brain barrier is a prerequisite for this pathogen that obviously must survive the bactericidal activity of serum. Here we report that outer membrane protein A (OmpA) of Escherichia coli contributes to serum(More)
Infestation of skin by the parasitic itch mite Sarcoptes scabiei afflicts 300 million people worldwide and there is a need for novel and efficient therapies. We have previously identified a multigene family of serine proteases comprising multiple catalytically inactive members (scabies mite-inactivated protease paralogs (SMIPPs)), which are secreted into(More)
After cell death, via apoptosis or necrosis, the uptake of dead cells by neighboring cells or phagocytes prevents the release of intracellular content. An array of molecules, including initiation molecules of the complement system, are involved in marking dead cells for uptake. After binding of these molecules, complement activation takes place, which when(More)
Moraxella catarrhalis ubiquitous surface protein A2 (UspA2) mediates resistance to the bactericidal activity of normal human serum. In this study, an interaction between the complement fluid phase regulator of the classical pathway, C4b binding protein (C4BP), and M. catarrhalis mutants lacking UspA1 and/or UspA2 was analyzed by flow cytometry and a RIA.(More)
Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and(More)
Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) is an important cause of meningitis and sepsis. Currently, there is no effective vaccine against serogroup B meningococcal infection. Host defense against neisseriae requires the complement system (C) as indicated by the fact that individuals deficient in properdin or late C components (C6-9) have an increased(More)