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A plethora of candidate genes have been identified for complex polygenic disorders, but the underlying disease mechanisms remain largely unknown. We explored the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes (T2D) by analyzing global gene expression in human pancreatic islets. A group of coexpressed genes (module), enriched for interleukin-1-related genes, was(More)
C-reactive protein (CRP) is the major acute phase protein in humans. It has been shown that CRP interacts with factor H, an inhibitor of the alternative pathway of complement, and now we demonstrate binding of CRP to the fluid-phase inhibitor of the classical pathway, C4b-binding protein (C4BP). C4BP bound to directly immobilized recombinant CRP as well as(More)
Ongoing inflammation including activation of the complement system is a hallmark of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Antimicrobial neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are composed of secreted chromatin that may act as a source of autoantigens typical for SLE. In this study, we investigated how complement interacts with NETs and how NET degradation is(More)
Factor I (FI) is a crucial inhibitor controlling all complement pathways due to its ability to degrade activated complement proteins C3b and C4b in the presence of cofactors such as factor H, C4b-binding protein, complement receptor 1 or CD46. Complete deficiency of FI, which is synthesized mainly in the liver is rare and leads to complement consumption(More)
The complement system constitutes an important component of the defence against foreign organisms, functioning both in innate and adaptive immune systems. It is potentially harmful also to the own organism and is therefore tightly regulated by a number of membrane-bound and soluble factors. C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a potent circulating soluble(More)
Activation of the complement system and resulting opsonisation with C3b are key events of the innate immune defense against infections. However, a wide variety of bacterial pathogens subvert complement attack by binding host complement inhibitors such as C4b-binding protein, factor H and vitronectin, which results in diminished opsonophagocytosis and(More)
C4b-binding protein (C4BP) is a regulator of the classical complement pathway, acting as a cofactor to factor I in the degradation of C4b. Computer modeling and structural analysis predicted a cluster of positively charged amino acids at the interface between complement control protein modules 1 and 2 of the C4BP alpha-chain to be involved in C4b binding.(More)
Many pathogens are equipped with factors providing resistance against the bactericidal action of complement. Yersinia enterocolitica, a Gram-negative enteric pathogen with invasive properties, efficiently resists the deleterious action of human complement. The major Y. enterocolitica serum resistance determinants include outer membrane proteins YadA and(More)
Genetic studies have shown that mutations of complement inhibitors such as membrane cofactor protein, Factors H, I, or B and C3 predispose patients to atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS). Factor I is a circulating serine protease that inhibits complement by degrading C3b and up to now only a few mutations in the CFI gene have been characterized. In a(More)
Complement is part of the innate immune defence and not only recognizes microbes but also unwanted host molecules to enhance phagocytosis and clearance. This process of opsonisation must be tightly regulated to prevent immunopathology. Endogenous ligands such as dying cells, extracellular matrix proteins, pentraxins, amyloid deposits, prions and DNA, all(More)