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UNLABELLED Clostridium difficile is the cause of most frequently occurring nosocomial diarrhea worldwide. As an enteropathogen, C. difficile must be exposed to multiple exogenous genetic elements in bacteriophage-rich gut communities. CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas (CRISPR-associated) systems allow bacteria to adapt(More)
T ranscription initiation is the central point of gene expression regulation. Understanding of molecular mechanism of transcription regulation requires, ultimately, the structural understanding of consequences of transcription factors binding to DNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RNAP), the enzyme of transcription. We recently determined a structure of a complex(More)
The diversity of bacteria present in surface snow around four Russian stations in Eastern Antarctica was studied by high throughput sequencing of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Considerable class- and genus-level variation between the samples was revealed indicating a presence of inter-site diversity of bacteria in(More)
Boudry et al., Function of the CRISPR-Cas system of the human pathogen Clostridium difficile. mBio 6(5):e01508-15. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported license, which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided(More)
Course Description The course is designed to acquaint students with the foreign policies of the nations in Northeast Asia: China, Japan, Russia, and the two Koreas. The class will explore national security strategies and foreign economic relations of these countries within the changing context of international environment shaped by the end of the Cold War,(More)
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