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Tetherin (CD317/BST-2), an interferon-induced membrane protein, restricts the release of nascent retroviral particles from infected cell surfaces. While human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) encodes the accessory gene vpu to overcome the action of tetherin, the lineage of primate lentiviruses that gave rise to HIV-2 does not. It has been previously(More)
BACKGROUND Over recent decades, recurring efforts have been devoted to developing testicular cell or tissue cultures for basic and clinical research. However, there remains much confusion, particularly concerning the fate of human germ cells in culture. OBJECTIVE To reassess the status of human testicular cell types as well as the ability of germ cells to(More)
Semen represents the main vector for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination worldwide and has been shown to harbor replication-competent virus despite otherwise effective highly active anti-retroviral therapy, which achieves undetectable viral load in plasma. Despite this, the origin of seminal HIV particles remains unclear, as does the question(More)
BACKGROUND In order to determine whether human prostate can be productively infected by HIV-1 strains with different tropism, and thus represent a potential source of HIV in semen, an organotypic culture of prostate from men undergoing prostatic adenomectomy for benign prostate hypertrophy (BPH) was developed. The presence of potential HIV target cells in(More)
Tetherin (BST2/CD317) has been recently recognized as a potent interferon-induced antiviral molecule that inhibits the release of diverse mammalian enveloped virus particles from infected cells. By targeting an immutable structure common to all these viruses, the virion membrane, evasion of this antiviral mechanism has necessitated the development of(More)
BACKGROUND Although indirect evidence suggests the male genital tract as a possible source of persistent HIV shedding in semen during antiretroviral therapy, this phenomenon is poorly understood due to the difficulty of sampling semen-producing organs in HIV+ asymptomatic individuals. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS Using a range of molecular and cell(More)
Despite semen being the main vector of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination worldwide, the origin of the virus in this bodily fluid remains unclear. It was recently shown that several organs of the male genital tract (MGT) are infected by HIV/simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) and likely to contribute to semen viral load during the primary and(More)
BACKGROUND The immuno-privileged status of the testis is essential to the maintenance of its functions, and innate immunity is likely to play a key role in limiting harmful viral infections, as demonstrated in the rat. In men mumps virus infects Leydig cells and has deleterious effects on testosterone production and spermatogenesis. The aim of this study(More)
BACKGROUND The male genital tract is suspected to constitute a viral sanctuary as persistent HIV shedding is found in the semen of a subset of HIV-infected men receiving effective antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The origin of this persistent shedding is currently unknown. Phylogenetic studies indicated that HIV in semen from untreated men arises from local(More)
Despite semen being the main vector of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) dissemination worldwide, the origin of the virus in this bodily fluid remains unknown. Of particular significance is the persistence of virus release in the semen of HIV-infected men under antiretroviral therapy, who otherwise show an undetectable blood viral load. It is therefore(More)