Anna L P Chapman

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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a late-onset neurological disorder characterized by death of motoneurons. Mutations in Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) cause familial ALS but the mechanisms whereby they induce disease are not fully understood. Here, we use time-lapse microscopy to monitor for the first time the effect of mutant SOD1 on fast axonal(More)
BACKGROUND Randomised controlled trials demonstrate a 60% reduction in type 2 diabetes incidence through lifestyle modification programmes. The aim of this study is to determine whether such programmes are feasible in primary health care. METHODS An intervention study including 237 individuals 40-75 years of age with moderate or high risk of developing(More)
Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a potent oxidant produced by myeloperoxidase that causes aggregation of many proteins. Treatment of apohaemoglobin and apomyoglobin with HOCl produced a regular series of oligomer bands when the proteins were separated by SDS/PAGE under reducing conditions. Aggregation was detectable at a HOCl/protein molar ratio of 0.5:1 and was(More)
We aimed to determine whether myeloperoxidase (MPO) is the main peroxidase present in the airways of children with cystic fibrosis (CF) and to assess which oxidants it produces and whether they are associated with clinical features of CF. Children with CF (n=54) and without CF (n=16) underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) for assessment of(More)
A serious barrier to our understanding of urban ecosystems is a lack of information on the ecology of soils organisms of green spaces within large cities. This study addresses this gap by providing baseline survey data on the biodiversity of soil macrofauna in urban parks and domestic gardens of London, UK. In April and June 2004, the soil macrofauna were(More)
Clonal selection and transcriptional reprogramming (e.g., epithelial-mesenchymal transition or phenotype switching) are the predominant theories thought to underlie tumor progression. However, a "division of labor" leading to cooperation among tumor-cell subpopulations could be an additional catalyst of progression. Using a zebrafish-melanoma xenograft(More)
Pathological and problem gambling refer to a class of disorders, including those meeting criteria for a psychiatric diagnosis (i.e., pathological gambling), and others comprising a spectrum of severity defined by significant personal and social harm (i.e., problem gambling), that may be common in substance use treatment but are frequently unrecognized. This(More)
BACKGROUND Chlorine bleach, or hypochlorous acid, is the most reactive two-electron oxidant produced in appreciable amounts in our bodies. Neutrophils are the main source of hypochlorous acid. These champions of the innate immune system use it to fight infection but also direct it against host tissue in inflammatory diseases. Neutrophils contain a rich(More)
Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) represents a group of neurodegenerative disorders typically characterised by demyelination (CMT1) or distal axon degeneration (CMT2) of motor and sensory neurons. The majority of CMT2 cases are caused by mutations in mitofusin 2 (MFN2); an essential gene encoding a protein responsible for fusion of the mitochondrial outer(More)
Phenotype-guided re-profiling of approved drug molecules presents an accelerated route to developing anticancer therapeutics by bypassing the target-identification bottleneck of target-based approaches and by sampling drugs already in the clinic. Further, combinations incorporating targeted therapies can be screened for both efficacy and toxicity.(More)