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Several recent studies have suggested that the adult bone marrow harbors cells that can differentiate into tissues from all three germ layers. Other reports have contradicted these findings or attributed them to cell fusion. In this study, we investigated whether bone marrow-derived cells contribute to the renewal of adult pancreatic endocrine cells, in(More)
Estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) is the sole sulfotransferase expressed in normal human breast epithelial cells and has an important function in determining free estrogen hormone levels in these cells. In the present study we examined the inhibitory effect of the dietary polyphenols quercetin and resveratrol on EST activity, i.e. 17beta-estradiol (E2)(More)
The disease diabetes mellitus arises as a consequence of a failure of the beta-cells in the islets of Langerhans of the pancreas to produce insulin in the amounts required to meet the needs of the body. Whole pancreas or islet transplants in patients with severe diabetes effectively restore insulin production. A lack of availability of donor pancreata(More)
The orexigenic peptide ghrelin has been shown to have prokinetic activity in the gastrointestinal (GI) system of several species, including humans. In this series of experiments, we have evaluated the prokinetic activity of novel, small-molecule ghrelin receptor (GhrR) agonists after parenteral and peroral dosing in mice and rats. Gastric emptying, small(More)
The insulin sensitizer drug, rosiglitazone, has been shown to have a protective effect on pancreatic islet cell structure and function in animal models of type 2 diabetes. The identification of new molecular targets associated both with islet cell dysfunction and protection is a crucial research goal. In the present study, a proteomics approach has been(More)
A number of two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) reference maps from mouse samples have been established and could be accessed through the internet. An up-to-date list can be found in WORLD-2D PAGE (http://www.expasy.ch/ch2d/2d- index.html), an index of 2-DE databases and services. None of them were established from mouse white and brown adipose tissues,(More)
BACKGROUND We and others have demonstrated previously that ghrelin receptor (GhrR) knock out (KO) mice fed a high fat diet (HFD) have increased insulin sensitivity and metabolic flexibility relative to WT littermates. A striking feature of the HFD-fed GhrR KO mouse is the dramatic decrease in hepatic steatosis. To characterize further the underlying(More)
Cellular replacement therapy holds promise for the treatment of diabetes mellitus but donor tissue is severely limited. Therefore, we investigated whether insulin-secreting cells could be differentiated in vitro from a monolayer of cells expanded from human donor pancreatic islets. We describe a three-step culture protocol that allows for the efficient(More)
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) participate in the molecular mechanism of pathologies with altered lipid homeostasis such as type 2 diabetes or obesity. The insulin sensitizer drug, rosiglitazone, has been shown to bind and activate PPAR-gamma1 in adipocytes and PPAR-gamma2 in hepatocytes. The identification of new molecular targets(More)
Activation of the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway leads to insulin resistance in muscle and adipose tissue. In these tissues leptin gene expression is increased by glucosamine. In the present study we found that glucosamine rapidly activates the production of leptin and OB-Rb, which encodes the functional leptin receptor, in both primary pancreatic islets(More)