Anna Kramvis

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Of approximately 360 million people in the world chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV), 65 million reside in Africa. Thus, Africa, with 12% of the world's population, carries approximately 18% of the global burden of HBV infection, with hepatocellular carcinoma and cirrhosis accounting for 2% of the continent's annual deaths. Despite HBV being(More)
Phylogenetic analysis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) has led to its classification into eight genotypes, A to H. The dominant genotype in South Africa is genotype A, which consists of two subgenotypes, A1 and A2. Subgenotype A1 (previously subgroup A') predominates over subgenotype A2 (previously subgroup A minus A'). The complete genome of HBV isolated from 18(More)
The purpose of this study was to identify mutations in the basic core promoter and enhancer II region of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that might cause the HBV e antigen (HBeAg)-negative phenotype and contribute to hepatocarcinogenesis in black African carriers of the virus. The basic core promoter/enhancer II overlaps with the X gene. HBV DNA from serum of(More)
Various genotypes of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) induce liver disease of distinct severity, but the underlying virological differences are not well defined. Huh7 cells were transfected with plasmids carrying 1.24-fold the HBV genome of different genotypes/subgenotypes (2 strains each for Aa/A1, Ae/A2, Ba/B2 and D; 3 each for Bj/B1 and C). HBV DNA levels in(More)
The core promoter (CP) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) plays a central role in HBV replication and morphogenesis, directing the transcription of both species of 3.5 kb mRNA: pregenomic (pg) RNA and precore (pre-C) mRNA. The CP overlaps the 3' end of the X open-reading frame (ORF) and the 5' end of the pre-C/C ORF. The major functional elements of the CP are the(More)
Sequence heterogeneity is a feature of hepatitis B virus (HBV), the prototype member of the family Hepadnaviridae. Based on an intergroup divergence of greater than 7.5% across the complete genome, HBV has been classified phylogenetically into 9 genotypes, A-I, with a putative 10th genotype 'J', isolated from a single individual. With between approximately(More)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) share transmission routes and are endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. The objective of the present study was to use the Taormina definition of occult HBV infection, together with stringent amplification conditions, to determine the prevalence and characteristics of HBV infection in antiretroviral(More)
A phylogenetic analysis is presented of six complete and seven pre-S1/S2/S gene sequences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) isolates from South Africa. Five of the full-length sequences and all of the pre-S2/S sequences have been previously reported. Four of the six complete genomes and three of the five incomplete sequences clustered with subgroup A', a unique(More)
There are two subtypes of hepatitis B virus genotype A (HBV/A) and they are provisionally designated Aa ("a" standing for Africa/Asia) and Ae ("e" for Europe). In a case-control study, 78 HBV/Aa, 78HBV/Ae, and 78HBV/D carriers from several countries were compared. The prevalence of HBe antigen (HBeAg) in serum was significantly lower in carriers of HBV/Aa(More)