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A formal definition of human standing up and sitting down movements based on sagittal plane goniometric and force plate data from 20 normal subjects is presented. This definition is comparable to the established gait cycle diagram, and consists of defined characteristic events and relative time intervals between them. The characteristic events are selected(More)
After a program of therapeutic electrical stimulation, 3 groups of incomplete spinal cord injured (SCI) patients were identified, those in whom an improvement of both voluntary and stimulated muscle force was observed, those with an increase in stimulation response only, and patients in whom no effect of electrical stimulation training could be recorded. As(More)
Functional electrical stimulation (FES) was applied in 50 spinal cord injury patients in an effort to restore standing and walking. All patients in the program with lesions from T4-T12 were able to stand by means of FES. Walking, utilizing a four-channel stimulator, was accomplished by 25 patients with lesions in the range from T4-T12. These 25 patients(More)
The electromyographic activities of six muscles of the thigh were recorded, using bipolar surface electrodes, during active extension of the knee by six healthy men. The signal amplitudes were normalized to those recorded during isometric maximum voluntary contractions. Extension of the knee from 90 to 0 degrees (full extension) was performed at the rate of(More)
The joint torques in hip, knee and ankle were measured during the standing-up of a healthy subject. Force plate and stroboscopic photography were used in the experiment. It has been observed that the time courses of particular joint torques depend on the kind of standing-up. On the basis of these results a standing-up procedure for paraplegic patients was(More)
Recent advances in science have aided research toward the restoration of biped gait in paraplegic patients by means of functional electrical stimulation (FES). In this paper it is shown how FES-restrengthened muscles of paraplegic patients have been used for simple FES-assisted standing. Those experiments subsequently led to biped gait-initializing(More)
The sit-to-stand transfer of paraplegic patients using functional electrical stimulation (FES) of the knee extensors and arm support was analyzed in the study. In a group of 8 completely paralyzed subjects who were trained FES users, kinematic and dynamic parameters were recorded during standing up trials. A contactless optical system was used to assess the(More)
When patients enter the Rehabilitation Centre a therapeutic electrical stimulation programme is immediately initiated. Three groups of patients were identified: (i) those in whom an improvement of both voluntary and stimulated muscle force was observed, (ii) those with an increase in stimulation response only, and (iii) patients in whom no effect of(More)
Functional movements can be restored after stroke by portable neuroelectric stimulator controlled by the patient. This field of activity is called functional electrical stimulation (FES). A common example of FES is electric stimulation of the peroneal to prevent dropfoot. A more sophisticated multichannel enables stimulation of more than one paralyzed(More)
The paper presents a short description of the field of electrical stimulation of skeletal muscles and a survey of the recent achievements in the functional electrical stimulation (FES) of paraplegic patients. The major emphasis is placed on the discussion of the basic problems concerning muscle fatigue, muscle retraining and patient selection. Muscle(More)