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The term apomixis encompasses a suite of processes whereby seeds form asexually in plants. In contrast to sexual reproduction, seedlings arising from apomixis retain the genotype of the maternal parent. The transfer of apomixis and its effective utilization in crop plants (where it is largely absent) has major advantages in agriculture. The hallmark(More)
Apomixis, the asexual formation of seed, has been known in angiosperms for more than a century yet the genetic mechanisms that control this trait remain poorly understood. Most members of the genus Hieracium are apomicts, forming predominantly asexual seed. Some purely sexual forms, however, also exist. In this paper we present a study of the inheritance of(More)
We have cloned two genes, FIS1 and FIS2, that control both fertilization independent seed development and postpollination embryo development in Arabidopsis. These genes confer female gametophytic phenotypes. FIS2 encodes a protein with a C2H2 zinc-finger motif and three putative nuclear localization signals, indicating that it is likely to be a(More)
Genomic imprinting causes the expression of an allele depending on its parental origin. In plants, most imprinted genes have been identified in Arabidopsis endosperm, a transient structure consumed by the embryo during seed formation. We identified imprinted genes in rice seed where both the endosperm and embryo are present at seed maturity. RNA was(More)
Apomixis is facultative in characterized members of the genus Hieracium. The three components that comprise the apomictic mechanism include apospory followed by autonomous embryo and endosperm formation. The time of aposporous embryo sac initiation and mode of embryo sac formation are different in Hieracium piloselloides (D3) and Hieracium aurantiacum(More)
A scheme for viroid classification is proposed based on the nature of the strictly conserved core sequence present in the central portion of the secondary structure of viroids. In this scheme, all of the known viroids can be classified as potato spindle tuber-type viroids consisting of two viroid groups and avocado sunblotch-type viroids containing one(More)
 Most members of the genus Hieracium are apomictic and set seed without fertilization, but sexual forms also exist. A cytological study was conducted on an apomictic accession of H. aurantiacum (A3.4) and also H. piloselloides (D3) to precisely define the cellular basis for apomixis. The apomictic events were compared with the sexual events in a(More)
Seed formation in flowering plants requires meiosis of the megaspore mother cell (MMC) inside the ovule, selection of a megaspore that undergoes mitosis to form an embryo sac, and double fertilization to initiate embryo and endosperm formation. During apomixis, or asexual seed formation, in Hieracium ovules, a somatic aposporous initial (AI) cell divides to(More)
Fruit initiation in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) is generally repressed until fertilization occurs. However, mutations in AUXIN RESPONSE FACTOR8 (ARF8) uncouple fruit initiation from fertilization, resulting in the formation of seedless, parthenocarpic fruit. Here we induced parthenocarpy in wild-type Arabidopsis by introducing either the mutant(More)