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1 Noninvasive brain stimulation is being widely investigated to understand and modulate human brain function, and offers novel therapeutic approaches to neurologic and psychiatric disorders. Here, we focus on the growing interest in the potential of noninvasive brain stimulation, particularly transcranial Electrical Stimulation (tES), to enhance cognitive(More)
In the past several years, the number of studies investigating enhancement of cognitive functions through noninvasive brain stimulation (NBS) has increased considerably. NBS techniques, such as transcranial magnetic stimulation and transcranial current stimulation, seem capable of enhancing cognitive functions in patients and in healthy humans, particularly(More)
All spoken languages express words by sound patterns, and certain patterns (e.g., blog) are systematically preferred to others (e.g., lbog). What principles account for such preferences: does the language system encode abstract rules banning syllables like lbog, or does their dislike reflect the increased motor demands associated with speech production?(More)
Bistable perception occurs when a stimulus is ambiguous and has two distinct interpretations that spontaneously alternate in observers' consciousness. Studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging, electroencephalography (EEG), and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy subjects and patient studies point towards a right fronto-parietal(More)
Cognitive training offers the potential for individualised learning, prevention of cognitive decline, and rehabilitation. However, key research challenges include ecological validity (training design), transfer of learning and long-term effects. Given that cognitive training and neuromodulation affect neuroplasticity, their combination could promote(More)
Learning and memory functions are crucial in the interaction of an individual with the environment and involve the interplay of large, distributed brain networks. Recent advances in technologies to explore neurobiological correlates of neuropsychological paradigms have increased our knowledge about human learning and memory. In this chapter we first review(More)
Symptoms of visuospatial neglect occur frequently after unilateral brain damage. Neglect hampers rehabilitation progress and is associated with reduced quality of life. However, existing treatment methods show limited efficacy. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is a neuromodulatory technique, which can be used to increase or decrease brain(More)
Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs) are the most commonly prescribed monotherapeutic medications for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, their underlying neurophysiological effects remain largely unknown. We investigated the effects of monotherapy (AChEI) and combination therapy (AChEI and memantine) on brain reactivity and plasticity. Patients treated(More)
Cognitive impairments and depression are common non-motor manifestations in Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent evidence suggests that both partially arise via the same frontostriatal network, opening the opportunity for concomitant treatment with non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) techniques such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and(More)
BACKGROUND Type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) accelerates cognitive aging and increases risk of Alzheimer's disease. Rodent models of T2DM show altered synaptic plasticity associated with reduced learning and memory. Humans with T2DM also show cognitive deficits, including reduced learning and memory, but the relationship of these impairments to the efficacy(More)