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The derivation of neural progenitor cells from human embryonic stem (ES) cells is of value both in the study of early human neurogenesis and in the creation of an unlimited source of donor cells for neural transplantation therapy. Here we report the generation of enriched and expandable preparations of proliferating neural progenitors from human ES cells.(More)
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) may potentially serve as a renewable source of cells for transplantation. In Parkinson's disease, hESC-derived dopaminergic (DA) neurons may replace the degenerated neurons in the brain. Here, we generated highly enriched cultures of neural progenitors from hESCs and grafted the progenitors into the striatum of(More)
The effect of amygdaloid (AMG) lesions on changes in median eminence (ME) CRF-41 and serum ACTH and corticosterone (CS) levels following neural stimuli were investigated in rats. In intact animals photic or acoustic stimuli caused CRF-41 depletion from the ME and a rise in serum ACTH and CS levels. In rats with medial or central AMG nuclei lesions, these(More)
Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis may present with fever and behavioral changes, to the extent of a psychotic state and psychomotor agitation. We developed a clinically relevant experimental model of HSV-1 encephalitis and investigated host brain responses associated with its clinical signs and whether these responses depend on the presence(More)
In the present study we examined the negative feedback effect of exogenous and endogenous glucocorticoids (GC) on the responses of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis to electrical stimulation of the central amygdaloid nucleus (AMG) and the ventral noradrenergic bundle (VNAB). Injection of dexamethasone (DEX 5-50 microg/kg BW) 3.5 h prior to(More)
Several HSV-1 neurovirulence genes have been mapped but the mechanisms by which they affect host-virus interactions are not known. We have previously mapped HSV-1 neurovirulence to the UL53 gene region of the viral DNA by transfer of this gene from the neurovirulent R-19 strain to the non-neurovirulent R-15 strain in the generation of the p-71 recombinant,(More)
It is well established that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis is activated during systemic viral diseases. In this study we examined the effects of a neurotropic virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), on the HPA axis in male rats. Following corneal inoculation with HSV-1, the virus invaded the nervous system and replicated in the(More)
The amygdala is known to modulate the function of the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, but the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. In the present study we examined the specific role of the serotonin (5-HT) system in mediating the effect of the amygdala on the activity of the HPA axis. Bilateral lesions of the amygdala in rats(More)
OBJECTIVES The role of nitric oxide (NO) in modulating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is not entirely clear. We examined the effect of different NO synthase (NOS) inhibitors and NO donors on the permeability of the BBB in animals with normally functioning brain blood vessels, following disruption by hyperosmotic mannitol and during immune inflammation. (More)
Herpes simplex-1 (HSV-1) is a sporadic cause of viral encephalitis. We have previously demonstrated that corneal HSV inoculation markedly activates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. This activation depends on host derived brain interleukine-1 and was resistant to pretreatment with dexamethasone (dex), possibly because immune factors such as(More)