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The neural circuits mediating fear to naturalistic threats are poorly understood. We found that functionally independent populations of neurons in the ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH), a region that has been implicated in feeding, sex and aggression, are essential for predator and social fear in mice. Our results establish a critical role for VMH in fear and(More)
L1 retrotransposons play an important role in mammalian genome shaping. In particular, they can transduce their 3'-flanking regions to new genomic loci or produce pseudogenes or retrotranscripts through reverse transcription of different kinds of cellular RNAs. Recently, we found in the human genome an unusual family of chimeric retrotranscripts composed of(More)
The hippocampus is critical for the acquisition and retrieval of episodic and contextual memories. Lesions of the dentate gyrus, a principal input of the hippocampus, block memory acquisition, but it remains unclear whether this region also plays a role in memory retrieval. Here we combine cell-type specific neural inhibition with electrophysiological(More)
Homer 1 gene products are involved in synaptic transmission and plasticity, and hence, distinct behavioral abnormalities, including anxiety- and depression-like behaviors, have been observed in Homer 1 knockout (KO) mice. Here we report that Homer 1 KO mice additionally exhibit a pronounced endocrine phenotype, displaying a profoundly increased adrenal(More)
Potassium voltage-gated Kv1.6 channel, which is distributed primarily in neurons of central and peripheral nervous systems, is of significant physiological importance. To date, several high-affinity Kv1.6-channel blockers are known, but the lack of selective ones among them hampers the studies of tissue localization and functioning of Kv1.6 channels. Here(More)
The prefrontal cortex helps adjust an organism's behavior to its environment. In particular, numerous studies have implicated the prefrontal cortex in the control of social behavior, but the neural circuits that mediate these effects remain unknown. Here we investigated behavioral adaptation to social defeat in mice and uncovered a critical contribution of(More)
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