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Continuous loss of CD4(+) T lymphocytes and systemic immune activation are hallmarks of untreated chronic HIV-1 infection. Chronic immune activation during HIV-1 infection is characterized by increased expression of activation markers on T cells, elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, and B cell hyperactivation together with hypergammaglobulinemia.(More)
Progressive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is often associated with high plasma virus load (pVL) and impaired CD8(+) T-cell function; in contrast, CD8(+) T cells remain polyfunctional in long-term nonprogressors. However, it is still unclear whether CD8(+) T-cell dysfunction is the cause or the consequence of high pVLs. Here, we(More)
Phospho-site specific antibodies become increasingly available, enabling the study of signaling events by Western blotting (WB) or intracellular flow cytometry (Phospho-Flow). Here we compared data generated by WB or Phospho-Flow regarding the kinetics and degree of phosphorylation of membrane proximal TCR signaling molecules. Phosphorylation events in(More)
BACKGROUND Human systemic antibody responses to commensal microbiota are not well characterised during health and disease. Of particular interest is the analysis of their potential modulation caused by chronic HIV-1 infection which is associated with sustained enteropathy and systemic B cell disturbances reflected by impaired B cell responses and chronic B(More)
Progressive quantitative and qualitative decline of CD4(+) T cell responses is one hallmark of HIV-1 infection and likely depends on several factors, including a possible contribution by the HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein gp120, which binds with high affinity to the CD4 receptor. Besides virion-associated and cell-expressed gp120, considerable amounts of(More)
Gastrointestinal commensal microbes usually exist in mutualistic relationship with their mammalian host. This relationship exists even though the mammalian host immune system is equipped with exquisite sensors for microbial chemical structures which trigger powerful immune defense mechanisms. Such beneficial mutualism is specifically maintained at the gut(More)
Hyperactivation of CD4+ T cells is a hallmark of untreated HIV-1 infection. The antigenic specificities of activated CD4+ T cells and the underlying mechanisms leading to their activation remain thus far elusive. We report here that during HIV rebound the dynamics of HIV-specific CD4+ T cells is highly correlated with the dynamics of CD4+ T cells specific(More)
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