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PURPOSE To characterize the incidence, duration, and risk factors for and outcome of cystoid macular edema (CME) after cataract surgery and investigate the effects of treatment regimens on visual outcome and duration. SETTING University-based comprehensive ophthalmology practice. METHODS This study included 1659 consecutive cataract surgeries performed(More)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) exists as a complex swarm of genetically related viruses known as a quasispecies. Recent work has shown that quasispecies complexity and evolutionary rates are associated with the outcome of acute infection. Knowledge of how the virus population evolves at different stages of chronic infection is less clear. We have studied rates of(More)
BACKGROUND The role of androgen receptors (ARs) in tumorigenesis, including transcription of fibroblast growth factors (FGFs), is established in prostate cancer. This study examined the role of ARs and FGFs in oesophageal adenocarcinoma (EAC), where tumour incidence in males is higher. METHODS AR gene expression was analysed using quantitative RT-PCR; AR,(More)
TT virus (TTV) is a newly described DNA virus of humans that exhibits an unusually high degree of genetic heterogeneity. We have performed extensive analysis of the TTV populations present in samples, taken over a period of 2 to 6 years, from three individuals with persistent TTV infection. TTV DNA titres estimated for sequential samples were found to be(More)
This non-systematic review article aims to summarise the progress made in understanding the functional consequences of microRNA (miRNA) dysregulation in prostate cancer development, and the identification of potential miRNA targets as serum biomarkers for diagnosis or disease stratification. A number of miRNAs have been shown to influence key cellular(More)
The recent development of tagged RT-PCR and rTth RT-PCR has greatly improved strand-specific detection of hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA but these assays are still prone to some false detection of the incorrect strand of RNA. In this study we aimed to address additional factors which contribute towards false detection of HCV RNA. Firstly the benefits of both(More)
The role of intrahepatic lymphocytes in the control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the pathology associated with it is not understood; most studies of the immunology of this infection use peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. To address this further, we examined in detail the IHL from HCV-infected patients and controls, focusing on the(More)
Gastrin is a pro-proliferative, anti-apoptotic hormone with a central role in acid secretion in the gastric mucosa and a long-standing association with malignant progression in transgenic mouse models. However, its exact role in human gastric malignancy requires further validation. Gastrin expression is tightly regulated by two closely associated hormones,(More)
TT virus (TTV) was recently identified in the serum of a patient with hepatitis. The role of TTV in liver disease has not been established. Three polymerase chain reaction (PCR) protocols were used to detect TTV DNA in sera of persons infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and in blood donors. Sera from 11.5% of HCV-infected patients and 7.7% of blood donors(More)
BACKGROUND Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related infection is commonly associated with a wide range of glomerulonephritides (GN) including membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis (MPGN). The causal link between HCV infection and renal disease has been postulated through the induction of cryoglobulinaemia and secondary GN. However, the detection of viral(More)