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The perception of downy mildew avirulence (Arabidopsis thaliana Recognized [ATR]) gene products by matching Arabidopsis thaliana resistance (Recognition of Peronospora parasitica [RPP]) gene products triggers localized cell death (a hypersensitive response) in the host plant, and this inhibits pathogen development. The oomycete pathogen, therefore, is under(More)
Plants, animals, and several branches of unicellular eukaryotes use programmed cell death (PCD) for defense or developmental mechanisms. This argues for a common ancestral apoptotic system in eukaryotes. However, at the molecular level, very few regulatory proteins or protein domains have been identified as conserved across all eukaryotic PCD forms. A very(More)
Programmed cell death (PCD) is a genetically controlled cell death that is regulated during development and activated in response to environmental stresses or pathogen infection. The degree of conservation of PCD across kingdoms and phylum is not yet clear; however, whereas caspases are proteases that act as key components of animal apoptosis, plants have(More)
Dendritic-cell (DC) trafficking and function in tumors is poorly characterized, with studies confined to myeloid DCs (DC1s). Tumors inhibit DC1 migration and function, likely hindering specific immunity. The role of plasmacytoid DCs (DC2s) in tumor immunity is unknown. We show here that malignant human ovarian epithelial tumor cells express very high levels(More)
The fungal family Clavicipitaceae includes plant symbionts and parasites that produce several psychoactive and bioprotective alkaloids. The family includes grass symbionts in the epichloae clade (Epichloë and Neotyphodium species), which are extraordinarily diverse both in their host interactions and in their alkaloid profiles. Epichloae produce alkaloids(More)
The constitutive expression of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (cNOS) is essential for the physiological regulation of vascular tone and structure. The mechanism of downregulation of steady state cNOS mRNA in human umbilical vein endothelial cells exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was investigated by using Northern blot analysis of(More)
Catecholamines appear to be involved in behavioral responses to acute and chronic ethanol consumption. Since tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) is the rate-limiting enzyme for catecholamine biosynthesis and is regulated by second messenger systems known to be modulated by ethanol, we studied ethanol-induced changes in TH gene expression. In the N1E-115 neural cell(More)
The effect of some antibacterial compounds present in human milk were tested for antiviral activity against respiratory syncytial virus, Semliki Forest virus and cytomegalovirus. These included the gangliosides GM1, GM2 and GM3, sialyl-lactose, lactoferrin and chondroitin sulphate A, B and C, which were all tested for their ability to inhibit the viruses in(More)
Claviceps purpurea is a biotrophic fungal pathogen of grasses causing the ergot disease. The infection process of C. purpurea on rye flowers is accompanied by pectin degradation and polygalacturonase (PG) activity represents a pathogenicity factor. Wheat is also infected by C. purpurea and we tested whether the presence of polygalacturonase inhibiting(More)
Four QTL conferring resistance to ergot were identified in the UK winter wheat varieties ‘Robigus’ and ‘Solstice’. Two QTL co-located with semi-dwarfing alleles at the Rht loci Rht - 1B and Rht - 1D implicating a role of these DELLA proteins in infection success of Claviceps purpurea. The fungal pathogen Claviceps purpurea infects ovaries of a broad range(More)