Anna Germundsson

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Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 influenza A virus was detected in Norwegian pigs in October 2009. Until then, Norway was regarded free of swine influenza. Intensified screening revealed 91 positive herds within three months. The virus was rapidly transmitted to the susceptible population, including closed breeding herds with high biosecurity. Humans were important for(More)
The prevalence of influenza A virus infection, and the distribution of different subtypes of the virus, were studied in 1529 ducks and 1213 gulls shot during ordinary hunting from August to December in two consecutive years, 2006 and 2007, in Norway. The study was based on molecular screening of cloacal and tracheal swabs, using a pan-influenza A RT-PCR.(More)
The Norwegian pig population has been free from influenza viruses until 2009. The pandemic influenza outbreak during the autumn 2009 provided an opportunity to study the clinical impact of this infection in an entirely naïve pig population. This paper describes the results of a case-control study on the clinical impact of pandemic influenza (H1N1) 2009(More)
The epidemiology of avian influenza viruses (AIVs) in gulls is only partially known. The role of the world's most numerous gull species, the black-legged kittiwake (Rissa tridactyla), as a potential AIV reservoir species has been unclear. The prevalence of AIV and humoral response against AIV were therefore studied in a colony of apparently healthy(More)
During recent years, extensive amounts of data have become available regarding influenza A virus (IAV) in wild birds in northern Europe, while information from southern Europe is more limited. Here, we present an IAV surveillance study conducted in western Portugal 2008-2009, analyzing 1653 samples from six different species of waterfowl, with the majority(More)
The Norwegian pig population was considered free from influenza A virus infections until the first case of porcine pandemic influenza A (H1N1) 2009 virus infection in October 2009. Human to pig transmission of virus was suspected. Unusual lung lesions were observed in fattening pigs, with red, lobular, multifocal to coalescing consolidation, most frequently(More)
Since the first appearance of the pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus many efforts have been made to monitor the changes of the virus at molecular level with the aim to early detect mutations which could alter its pathogenicity. Some mutations have been observed more frequently in viruses that caused severe or fatal infections than in viruses involved in mild(More)
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