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In mammals, the canonical nuclear factor kappaB (NF-kappaB) signaling pathway activated in response to infections is based on degradation of IkappaB inhibitors. This pathway depends on the IkappaB kinase (IKK), which contains two catalytic subunits, IKKalpha and IKKbeta. IKKbeta is essential for inducible IkappaB phosphorylation and degradation, whereas(More)
Plastid genes encoding light-independent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (LIPOR) subunits were isolated from cryptophyte algae, the first example of such genes in plastids of secondary endosymbiotic origin. The presence of functional and nonfunctional copies of LIPOR genes in cryptophytes suggests that light-independent chlorophyll biosynthesis is a(More)
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