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Laquinimod (LAQ) is a new immunomodulatory drug shown to be effective in the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS); however, its molecular target pathways are not well recognized. In this study we characterized in-vitro the molecular effects of LAQ in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of healthy subjects and RRMS patients by(More)
Molecular mechanisms that influence susceptibility to multiple sclerosis are poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood gene expression profiles in nine healthy subjects up to nine years before the onset of multiple sclerosis in comparison with 11 age-, gender-, and origin-matched healthy subjects who remained multiple sclerosis-free, and 31 subjects(More)
Animal conflict models have been used for years as a preclinical screen for predicting anxiolytic therapeutic efficacy. Anxiolytics, including benzodiazepines, increase punished responding. This suggests that the punished behavior may be mediated by the GABA receptor. To evaluate this hypothesis, we performed in situ hybridization histochemistry studies of(More)
Low expression of NR4A gene family members (NR4A1, NR4A3) and 1-alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) receptor (VDR) genes was demonstrated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of subjects evaluated during the pre-disease state of multiple sclerosis (MS-to-be, MS2b), in patients with clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) during the very early presentation of(More)
The GABAergic system is sexually dimorphic in certain brain regions and can be regulated by testosterone (T). However, the contribution of T to sex-specific developmental processes in the brain is less clear. We have examined whether T regulates expression of GABA(A) receptor alpha2 subunit in the cerebral cortex of embryonic and postnatal female rats using(More)
We isolated a rat orphan nuclear hormone receptor from a brain cortex cDNA library. The sequence of the cDNA insert was 2154 bp with an open reading frame of 1794 bp encoding a putative protein of 598 amino acids and predicted molecular mass of 65 kDa. The deduced amino acid sequence showed a strong homology to the mouse nurr1 and human NOT1 orphan nuclear(More)
BACKGROUND Glatiramer acetate (GA, Copaxone) has beneficial effects on the clinical course of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). However, the exact molecular mechanisms of GA effects are only partially understood. OBJECTIVE To characterized GA molecular effects in RRMS patients within 3 months of treatment by microarray profiling of peripheral(More)
Benign multiple sclerosis (BMS) occurs in about 15% of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) that over time do not develop significant neurological disability. The molecular events associated with BMS are not clearly understood. This study sought to underlie the biological mechanisms associated with BMS. Blood samples obtained from a(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated the molecular pathways that operate in the early phase of acute optic neuritis (ON) by studying gene expression profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) subpopulations, including CD19(+) B cells, CD14(+) macrophages, and CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. METHODS Samples of PBMC subpopulations were obtained from 18 MS patients(More)
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