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There has been growing interest in the axon as the initial focus of pathological change in a number of neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. This review concentrates on three major neurodegenerative conditions--amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease--with emphasis on key cellular changes that may(More)
Overactivation of glutamate receptors leading to excitotoxicity has been implicated in the neurodegenerative alterations of a range of central nervous system (CNS) disorders. We have investigated the cell-type-specific changes in glutamate receptor localization in developing cortical neurons in culture, as well as the relationship between glutamate receptor(More)
Most cases of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are sporadic in nature, although rarer familial AD (FAD) cases have provided important insights into major pathological disease mechanisms. Mutations in the presenilin 1 gene (PS1) are responsible for the majority of FAD cases, causing an earlier age of onset and more rapid progression to end-stage disease than seen in(More)
The neurofilament light (NFL) subunit is considered as an obligate subunit polymer for neuronal intermediate filaments comprising the neurofilament (NF) triplet proteins. We examined cytoskeletal protein levels in the cerebral cortex of NFL knockout (KO) mice at postnatal day 4 (P4), 5 months, and 12 months of age compared with age-matched wild-type (WT)(More)
Intronic expansion of a hexanucleotide GGGGCC repeat in the chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 (C9ORF72) gene is the major cause of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia. However, the cellular function of the C9ORF72 protein remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that C9ORF72 regulates endosomal trafficking. C9ORF72(More)
α-Synuclein is the major protein component of Lewy bodies--the pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) and Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Its accumulation into intracellular aggregates is implicated in the process of Lewy body formation. However, its roles in both normal function, and disease, remain controversial. Using a novel model of chronic(More)
BACKGROUND An increasing number of recently described tau mutations show considerable clinical heterogeneity. The assessment of this phenotypic variation is of vital importance in the differential diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. OBJECTIVE To assess the neuropathologic heterogeneity in a comprehensive study of 12 brains with a tau mutation at exon(More)
The APP-PS1ΔE9 mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) exhibits age dependent amyloid β (Aβ) plaque formation in their central nervous system due to high expression of mutated human APP and PSEN1 transgenes. Here we evaluated Aβ deposition and changes in soluble Aβ accumulation in the retinas of aged APP-PS1 mice using a combination of immunofluorescence,(More)
α-Synuclein is a pre-synaptic chaperone and its accumulation contributes to differential cell loss in Parkinson’s disease. Cytoplasmic expression of α-synuclein can directly modulate apoptotic pathways and contribute to cell survival, whereas induced over-expression of the protein causes oxidative stress through mitochondrial and cytosolic free-radical(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disorder involving loss of movement due to degeneration of motor neurons. Studies suggest that in ALS axonal dysfunction precedes the death of motor neurons. Pathologically, ALS is characterized by neurofilamentous swellings (spheroids) within the axons of motor neurons. However, the causes of this(More)