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We report the generation of transgenic mice deficient in the metallothionein MT-I and MT-II genes. The mutations were introduced into embryonic stem cells by homologous recombination. Chimeric mice resulting from the targeted embryonic stem cells transmitted the disrupted alleles through their germ line. Homozygous animals were born alive and appeared(More)
The amnion is the inner of two membranes surrounding the fetus. That it arises from embryonic epiblast cells prior to gastrulation suggests that it may retain a reservoir of stem cells throughout pregnancy. We found that human amniotic epithelial cells (hAECs) harvested from term-delivered fetal membranes express mRNA and proteins present in human embryonic(More)
Embryonic cells from transgenic mice with targeted disruption of metallothionein I and II genes expressed no detectable metallothionein either constitutively or after treatment with cadmium, in contrast to cultured cells that were wild type or heterozygous for the loss of the metallothionein genes. Metallothionein null cells were most sensitive to the(More)
Pluripotent human stem cells isolated from early embryos represent a potentially unlimited source of many different cell types for cell-based gene and tissue therapies [1-3]. Nevertheless, if the full potential of cell lines derived from donor embryos is to be realised, the problem of donor-recipient tissue matching needs to be overcome. One approach, which(More)
Metallothionein (MT) has several putative roles in metal detoxification, in Zn and Cu homeostasis, in scavenging free radicals, and in the acute phase response. Mice of mixed 129/Ola and C57BL/6J background with targeted disruption of MT-I and MT-II genes are more sensitive to toxic metals and oxidative stress. We noted that these animals were larger than(More)
The application of human embryonic stem (hES) cells in regenerative medicine will require rigorous quality control measures to ensure the safety of hES cell-derived grafts. During propagation in vitro, hES cells can acquire cytogenetic abnormalities as well as submicroscopic genetic lesions, such as small amplifications or deletions. Many of the genetic(More)
Six transgenic pigs have been produced by microinjecting a human metallothionein promoter/porcine growth hormone gene construct into the pronuclei of fertilized eggs which were transferred to synchronized recipient sows. The resulting transgenic animals contained between 0.5 and 15 copies of the gene construct per cell, and at least one of the animals(More)
The International Stem Cell Initiative characterized 59 human embryonic stem cell lines from 17 laboratories worldwide. Despite diverse genotypes and different techniques used for derivation and maintenance, all lines exhibited similar expression patterns for several markers of human embryonic stem cells. They expressed the glycolipid antigens SSEA3 and(More)
Cadmium (Cd) is known to have a long biological half-life in the body, possibly due to its binding to metallothionein (MT). This study was designed to determine the role of MT in the tissue distribution and retention of Cd using MT-I and -II null (MT-null) mice. Mice were given 109CdCl(2) (15 mumol/kg, 25 microCi/kg, i.p.), and radioactivity was quantified(More)
Zinc pretreatment has been shown in vitro (rat myoblasts) to induce metallothionein (MT) and inhibit cadmium (Cd)-induced protooncogenes c-myc and c-jun mRNA levels. therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine whether the mRNA expression of the protooncogene c-jun as well as the tumor suppressor gene p53 is increased by Cd in the intact animal(More)