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In vivo, hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) is known to be phosphorylated on two sites termed the regulatory and basal sites. However, the intracellular role of the basal site or the identity of the protein kinase phosphorylating this site has not been established. We show that 5-amino-4-imidazolecarboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) markedly activates cellular(More)
GPR40 (G-protein-coupled receptor 40) has been shown to be a physiologically relevant receptor for long-chain fatty acids. It is a family A G-protein-coupled receptor highly expressed in the beta-cell where it increases insulin secretion by signalling via Gq and phospholipase C. Fatty acids are well known to mediate both acute stimulatory effects and(More)
Free fatty acid receptor 2 (Ffar2), also known as GPR43, is activated by short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) and expressed in intestine, adipocytes, and immune cells, suggesting involvement in lipid and immune regulation. In the present study, Ffar2-deficient mice (Ffar2-KO) were given a high-fat diet (HFD) or chow diet and studied with respect to lipid and(More)
In L6 myotubes, redistribution of a hemagglutinin (HA) epitope-tagged GLUT4 (HA-GLUT4) to the cell surface occurs rapidly in response to insulin stimulation and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation. We have examined whether these separate signaling pathways have a convergent mechanism that leads to GLUT4 mobilization and to changes in GLUT4(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an evolutionarily conserved enzyme and a target of glucose-lowering agents, including metformin. However, the precise role or roles of the enzyme in controlling insulin secretion remain uncertain. METHODS The catalytic alpha1 and alpha2 subunits of AMPK were ablated selectively in mouse pancreatic(More)
We have cloned a novel PP2Cbeta isoform from a human liver cDNA library which codes for a protein homologous to other mammalian PP2Cbetas at the N-terminus but with an extended C-terminus that is unique amongst the PP2Cs. The protein expressed in E. coli is indistinguishable from human recombinant PP2Calpha in its cation dependence and insensitivity to(More)
The use of protein phosphatase inhibitors has been instrumental in defining the intracellular roles of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1), PP2A and PP2B. Identification of the role of PP2C in vivo has been hampered, in part, by the unavailability of specific inhibitors. In order to facilitate the identification of novel and specific inhibitors of PP2C by random(More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Glucagon release from pancreatic alpha cells is required for normal glucose homoeostasis and is dysregulated in both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes. The tumour suppressor LKB1 (STK11) and the downstream kinase AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), modulate cellular metabolism and growth, and AMPK is an important target of the anti-hyperglycaemic(More)
A cDNA encoding rat liver AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) was used to isolate human skeletal muscle AMPK cDNA clones. Human AMPK cDNA is more than 90% homologous to the rat sequence and predicts a protein of molecular mass 62.3 kDa, which closely agrees with the mass observed in Western blots of human tissues. AMPK antibodies were also shown to(More)
BACKGROUND Sustained exposure of pancreatic β cells to an increase in saturated fatty acids induces pleiotropic effects on β-cell function, including a reduction in stimulus-induced insulin secretion. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of chronic over supply of palmitate upon glucose- and amino acid-stimulated insulin secretion (GSIS(More)