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BACKGROUND & AIMS Cholera toxin (CT) is the most recognizable enterotoxin causing secretory diarrhea, a major cause of infant morbidity and mortality throughout the world. In this study, we investigated the role of the endogenous cannabinoid system (i.e., the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands) in CT-induced fluid accumulation in the mouse(More)
The presence and distribution of nicotinamide dinucleotide phosphate diaphorase (NADPH-d)-containing neurons have been studied by means of NADPH-d histochemistry in different regions of the adult cow gut, from the esophagus to the rectum. NADPH-d and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) were constantly recognized to be colocalized in the same neuron. The(More)
 The distribution of neurons containing the enzymes NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d) and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has been studied in the gastrointestinal tract of lizard (Podarcis s. sicula) and snake (Thamnophis sirtalis). The techniques employed were the NADPH-d/nitroblue tetrazolium histochemical method, and the indirect immunofluorescence applied to(More)
The enzyme NADPH-diaphorase (NADPH-d; a marker of NO producing or nitrergic neurons) and the neuropeptide VIP have been detected in the nerve structures of the hen oviduct by histochemical and immunohistochemical techniques performed on cryostatic sections and whole mount preparations. In the upper four segments of the oviduct, i.e. the infundibulum,(More)
The endocannabinoid system (i.e., the cannabinoid receptors and their endogenous ligands) plays an important role in the physiological control of intestinal motility. However, its participation in intestinal pathological states is still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the possible role of the endocannabinoid system in the(More)
The MAS-related gene (Mrg) receptor MrgE has been suggested to be expressed at all tissue levels involved in pain sensation and to influence the expression of another Mrg receptor, MrgF. Given the knowledge on the role of the enteric nervous system (ENS) in sensation, and the plasticity of enteric neurons during intestinal inflammation, it can be(More)
Although there is pharmacological evidence to assume that the P2Y4 receptor is a regulator of epithelial ion transport, no detailed data about its distribution within the gut are available. Therefore, this study, using whole mounts and cryosections, aimed to reveal the expression pattern of P2Y4 along the entire guinea-pig gastrointestinal tract. P2Y4(More)
The hypothalamic peptides orexin A (OXA) and orexin B (OXB), deriving from the proteolytic cleavage of the precursor molecule prepro-orexin, have also been localized in multiple cerebral areas and peripheral organs. They regulate food intake, arterial blood pressure, heart rate, sleep/wake cycle, sexual behavior, arousal, and the hypothalamic/hypophyseal(More)
A systematic search for neuroendocrine (NE) cells in the urogenital organs of the pig was carried out by means of Linder's argyrophil method and immunohistochemical techniques. The occurrence, distribution and immunohistochemical character of NE cells (paraneurons) were studied in the vaginal vestibulum, vagina, uterus, oviduct, ovary, urethra, urinary(More)
The peptides orexin A (OxA) and orexin B (OxB) deriving from a common precursor molecule, prepro-orexin, by proteolytic cleavage, bind the two G-coupled OX1 and OX2 receptors. While OX1 selectively binds OxA, OX2 shows similar affinity for both orexins. Firstly discovered in the hypothalamus, orexins and their receptors have been found in other brain(More)