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A growing body of preclinical evidence indicates that addiction to cocaine is associated with neuroadaptive changes in frontostriatal brain systems. Human studies in cocaine-dependent individuals have shown alterations in brain structure, but it is less clear how these changes may be related to the clinical phenotype of cocaine dependence characterized by(More)
Previous studies suggest that horizontal reaching movements are planned vectorially with independent specification of direction and extent. The transformation from visual to hand-centered coordinates requires the learning of a task-specific reference frame and scaling factor. We studied learning of a novel reference frame by imposing a screen-cursor(More)
The differential diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders can be challenging, especially early in the disease course. PET imaging with [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) has been used to identify characteristic patterns of regional glucose metabolism in patient cohorts with idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD), as well as variant forms of parkinsonism such as(More)
BACKGROUND In functional magnetic resonance imaging, the brain's response to experimental manipulation is almost always assumed to be independent of endogenous oscillations. To test this, we addressed the possible interaction between cognitive task performance and endogenous fMRI oscillations in an experiment designed to answer two questions: 1) Does(More)
CONTEXT There are no effective pharmacotherapies for stimulant dependence but there are many plausible targets for development of novel therapeutics. We hypothesized that dopamine-related targets are relevant for treatment of stimulant dependence, and there will likely be individual differences in response to dopaminergic challenges. OBJECTIVE To measure(More)
Attenuation correction is an essential requirement for quantification of positron emission tomography (PET) data. In PET/CT acquisition systems, attenuation maps are derived from computed tomography (CT) images. However, in hybrid PET/MR scanners, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images do not directly provide a patient-specific attenuation map. The aim of(More)
Fractal processes, like trees or coastlines, are defined by self-similarity or power law scaling controlled by a single exponent, simply related to the fractal dimension or Hurst exponent (H) of the process. Multifractal processes, like turbulence, have more complex behaviours defined by a spectrum of possible local scaling behaviours or singularity(More)
A key challenge for systems neuroscience is the question of how to understand the complex network organization of the brain on the basis of neuroimaging data. Similar challenges exist in other specialist areas of systems biology because complex networks emerging from the interactions between multiple non-trivially interacting agents are found quite(More)
CONTEXT There is consensus that autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is accompanied by differences in neuroanatomy. However, the neural substrates of ASD during adulthood, as well as how these relate to behavioral variation, remain poorly understood. OBJECTIVE To identify brain regions and systems associated with ASD in a large, well-characterized sample of(More)
Biomarkers are now used in many areas of medicine but are still lacking for psychiatric conditions such as schizophrenia (SCZ). We have used a multiplex molecular profiling approach to measure serum concentrations of 181 proteins and small molecules in 250 first and recent onset SCZ, 35 major depressive disorder (MDD), 32 euthymic bipolar disorder (BPD), 45(More)