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OBJECTIVES We sought to present new data on smoking prevalence in 8 countries, analyze prevalence changes between 2001 and 2010, and examine trend variance by age, location, education level, and household economic status. METHODS We conducted cross-sectional household surveys in 2010 in Armenia, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Moldova, Russia,(More)
OBJECTIVES We sought to provide comparative data on smoking habits in countries of the former Soviet Union. METHODS We conducted cross-sectional surveys in 8 former Soviet countries with representative national samples of the population 18 years or older. RESULTS Smoking rates varied among men, from 43.3% to 65.3% among the countries examined. Results(More)
BACKGROUND Changes in smoking, particularly an increase in women, were predicted to follow the aggressive campaigns of multinational tobacco companies in transitional Russia. However, such changes have not yet been demonstrated unequivocally. OBJECTIVE To examine smoking trends by gender, education and area of residence. METHODS Data from 10 rounds of(More)
Ukraine is the second most populous of the former Soviet Republics and since transition its economy has fared even more poorly than Russia. Although the impact of the collapse of the former Soviet Union on health in Russia has been investigated, little is known of its impact in other post-Soviet republics. We report a cross-sectional study undertaken in(More)
AIMS To describe levels of knowledge on the harmful effects of tobacco and public support for tobacco control measures in nine countries of the former Soviet Union and to examine the characteristics associated with this knowledge and support. METHODS Standardised, cross-sectional nationally representative surveys conducted in 2010/2011 with 18 000 men and(More)
AIMS To explore trends in and predictors of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in children. To identify whether inequalities in SHS exposure are changing over time. DESIGN Repeated cross-sectional study with data from eight annual surveys conducted over an 11-year period from 1996 to 2006. SETTING England. PARTICIPANTS Nationally representative samples(More)
AIM To examine whether government-funded tobacco control television advertising shown in England between 2002 and 2010 reduced adult smoking prevalence and cigarette consumption. DESIGN Analysis of monthly cross-sectional surveys using generalised additive models. SETTING England. PARTICIPANTS More than 80 000 adults aged 18 years or over living in(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine the impact of the ban on smoking in enclosed public places implemented in England in July 2007 on children's exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke. DESIGN Repeated cross-sectional surveys of the general population in England. SETTING The Health Survey for England. PARTICIPANTS Confirmed non-smoking children aged 4-15 with measured(More)
Using tobacco industry documents, we examined how and why the tobacco industry sought to influence science and scientists in Germany as a possible factor in explaining the German opposition to stricter tobacco regulation. Smoking and health research programs were organized both separately by individual tobacco companies and jointly through their German(More)
OBJECTIVE To systematically review studies of tobacco industry efforts to influence tobacco tax policies. METHODS Searches were conducted between 1 October 2009 and 31 March 2010 in 14 databases/websites, in relevant bibliographies and via experts. Studies were included if they focused on industry efforts to influence tobacco tax policies, drew on(More)