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Probiotics are foods or products that contain live microorganisms that benefit the host when administered. In this clinical review, we evaluate the literature associated with using probiotics in common pediatric gastrointestinal disorders, focusing specifically on antibiotic-associated diarrhea, acute gastroenteritis, Clostridium difficile infection (CDI),(More)
Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and functional dyspepsia (FD) are common problems in the pediatric population, with up to 7% of school-age children and up to 8% of adolescents suffering from epigastric pain, heartburn, and regurgitation. Reflux is defined as the passage of stomach contents into the esophagus, while GERD refers to reflux symptoms that(More)
Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is an autoimmune disease that causes chronic inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. There is emerging evidence that the brain-gut connection affects inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients more than previously thought. This is evidenced by comorbid mood disorders, irritable bowel symptoms concurrent with(More)
OBJECTIVES Patient activation is an important consideration for improved health outcomes in the management of chronic diseases. Limited English proficiency among patients and primary care providers has been shown to be a predictor for worse health across disease states. We aimed to determine the baseline patient activation measure (PAM) among(More)
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