Ann-Marie Simeone

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Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is the most aggressive form of locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) characterized by rapid growth and aggressive invasion with no selective therapies developed to treat IBC. Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2), which produces prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is known to be upregulated in primary IBC tumors and metastatic lesions, however the(More)
High levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein have been associated with invasion and metastasis of breast tumors. Both prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) have been shown to mediate the invasive activity of COX-2 in breast cancer cells. Here we expand these studies to determine how COX-2 uses PGE2 and IL-8 to induce breast cancer cell(More)
BACKGROUND Although inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is recognized as the most lethal variant of locally advanced breast cancer, few molecular signatures of IBC have been identified that can be used as targets to develop therapeutics that effectively inhibit the aggressive phenotype displayed by IBC tumors. METHODS Real-time polymerase chain reaction(More)
N-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) induces apoptosis in breast cancer cells; however, the molecular basis by which 4-HPR induces apoptosis is not well understood. In breast cancer cells, nitric oxide (NO) is predominantly an apoptotic inducer. Apoptotic agents, such as phorbol ester, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and peptide hormones, have been shown to(More)
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) increases breast cancer cell invasion. Expression of various pro-angiogenic and pro-invasive factors has been correlated with high expression of COX-2. However, whether these factors are essential to COX-2-mediated breast cancer invasion, and the mechanisms by which COX-2 increases the expression of these factors are unknown. Our(More)
Targeted therapy with reduced side effects is a major goal in cancer research. We investigated the effects of JS-K, a nitric oxide (NO) prodrug designed to release high levels of NO when suitably activated, on human breast cancer cell lines, on non-transformed human MCF-10A mammary cells, and on normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). Cell viability(More)
Tumor invasion and metastasis remain a major cause of mortality in breast cancer patients. High concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) suppress tumor invasion and metastasis in vivo. NO prodrugs generate large amounts of NO upon metabolism by appropriate intracellular enzymes, and therefore could have potential in the prevention and therapy of metastatic(More)
Women with germline mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene BRCA1 are at an increased risk of developing breast cancer. The synthetic retinoid N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)retinamide (4-HPR) has been shown to have a clinical chemopreventive activity in patients with premenopausal breast cancer. Since BRCA1 mutations are associated with an early-onset(More)
Approximately 30-40% of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive breast tumors express high levels of the cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein, and these high levels have been associated with a poorer prognosis in breast cancer patients. We speculate that high levels of COX-2 induce drug resistance in ERalpha-positive breast tumors, thus reducing the survival(More)
In breast tumors, high levels of leptin have been associated with increased incidence of breast cancer metastasis. Breast cancer metastasis is directly associated with breast cancer cell invasion. However, whether leptin could augment breast cancer cell invasion is not known. Here we showed that leptin increased the invasiveness and the matrix(More)