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We report that the many Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases, and their numerous membrane-bound ligands, can each be grouped into only two major specificity subclasses. Receptors in a given subclass bind most members of a corresponding ligand subclass. The physiological relevance of these groupings is suggested by viewing the collective distributions of(More)
Recent studies have implicated Eph-related receptor tyrosine kinases and their membrane-bound ligands in restricting or stimulating the movement of cells and axons. Members of these large families of receptors and ligands fall into two major binding specificity classes, in which the GPI-anchored subgroup of ligands can each bind to all members of a subgroup(More)
Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by pleiotropic developmental anomalies of the limbs, teeth, face and eyes that was shown recently to be caused by mutations in the gap junction protein alpha 1 gene (GJA1), encoding connexin 43 (Cx43). In the course of performing an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis screen,(More)
Since genetically modified mice have become more common in biomedical research as models of human disease, a need has also grown for efficient and quantitative methods to assess mouse phenotype. One powerful means of phenotyping is characterization of anatomy in mutant vs. normal populations. Anatomical phenotyping requires visualization of structures in(More)
Segmentation of the vertebrate hindbrain leads to the formation of a series of rhombomeres (r) with distinct identities. Recent studies have uncovered regulatory links between transcription factors governing this process, but little is known of how these relate to molecules mediating cell-cell signalling. The Eph receptor tyrosine kinase gene EphA4 (Sek-1)(More)
The function of the majority of genes in the mouse and human genomes remains unknown. The mouse embryonic stem cell knockout resource provides a basis for the characterization of relationships between genes and phenotypes. The EUMODIC consortium developed and validated robust methodologies for the broad-based phenotyping of knockouts through a pipeline(More)
Glaucoma is a leading cause of blindness, afflicting more than 60 million people worldwide. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) due to impaired aqueous humor drainage is a major risk factor for the development of glaucoma. Here, we demonstrated that genetic disruption of the angiopoietin/TIE2 (ANGPT/TIE2) signaling pathway results in high IOP, buphthalmos,(More)
We determined the expression pattern of the tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) in the development of the mouse embryo using in situ hybridization and transgenesis. Localized TIMP RNA was first detected at 13.5 days post conceptus (p.c.) in tissues undergoing osteogenesis, such as the mandible, ribs, and calvaria. As development proceeded, TIMP RNA(More)
The Eph family of receptor tyrosine kinases has 13 distinct members and seven ligands for these receptors have been described to date. These receptors and their ligands have been implicated in regulating neuronal axon guidance and in patterning of the developing nervous system and may also serve a patterning and compartmentalization role outside of the(More)