Ann-Mari Estlander

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OBJECTIVE The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of psychiatric disorders in patients referred to a tertiary pain clinic. The temporal relationship between the onset of pain and depression and anxiety and the association of psychiatric disorders with pain intensity were also analyzed. METHOD One hundred consecutive outpatients underwent a(More)
OBJECTIVE Anxiety symptoms are common in chronic pain patients. High levels of anxiety are associated with increased pain experience and disability. Proneness to anxiety has a large interindividual variation. The aim of the study was to determine whether the anxiety-related temperament trait Harm Avoidance (HA), is associated with pain-related anxiety. (More)
Experience of pain is manifested by a subject's behaviour, i.e. by verbalization, movements, facial expressions etc. Experience of pain is a latent construct, and the question of whether the pain is "real" becomes secondary when the behavioural aspect is emphasised: "When the patient communicates pain, then there is a pain problem". The task of the(More)
There is an abundance of studies concerning depression and pain, while the mechanisms and the relationships of anger expression and pain are less well known. The validity of commonly used depression questionnaires as measures of depression in pain patients has been questioned, as they include items which can be related to the pain problem as well as to(More)
The aim of this study was to identify clinical risk factors for unfavorable pain trajectories after breast cancer surgery, to better understand the association between pain expectation, psychological distress, and acute postoperative pain. This prospective study included 563 women treated for breast cancer. Psychological data included questionnaires for(More)
BACKGROUND Diagnosing depression in chronic pain is challenging due to overlapping somatic symptoms. In questionnaires, such as the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), responses may be influenced more by pain than by the severity of depression. In addition, previous studies have suggested that symptoms of negative self-image, a key element in depression, are(More)
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