Ann M Turnley

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The differentiation of precursor cells into neurons or astrocytes in the developing brain has been thought to be regulated in part by growth factors. We show here that neural precursors isolated from the developing forebrain of mice that are deficient in the gene for the low-affinity leukemia inhibitory factor receptor (LIFR-/-) fail to generate astrocytes(More)
Spinal cord injury usually results in permanent paralysis because of lack of regrowth of damaged neurons. Here we demonstrate that adult mice lacking EphA4 (-/-), a molecule essential for correct guidance of spinal cord axons during development, exhibit axonal regeneration and functional recovery after spinal cord hemisection. Anterograde and retrograde(More)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a disabling inflammatory demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) that primarily affects young adults. Available therapies can inhibit the inflammatory component of MS but do not suppress progressive clinical disability. An alternative approach would be to inhibit mechanisms that drive the neuropathology of MS,(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons. Disease onset and progression are variable, with survival ranging from months to decades. Factors underlying this variability may represent targets for therapeutic intervention. Here, we have screened a zebrafish model of ALS and identified Epha4, a receptor in(More)
Lysophospholipids are signaling molecules that play broad and major roles within the nervous system during both early development and neural injury. We used neural differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESC) as an in vitro model to examine the specific effects of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) at various stages of neural development, from neural(More)
The mammalian AMP-activated protein kinase is a heterotrimeric serine/threonine protein kinase with multiple isoforms for each subunit (alpha, beta, and gamma) and is activated under conditions of metabolic stress. It is widely expressed in many tissues, including the brain, although its expression pattern throughout the CNS is unknown. We show that brain(More)
Suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS) 2 is a negative regulator of growth hormone (GH) signaling that regulates body growth postnatally and neuronal differentiation during development. SOCS2 binds to the GH receptor and inhibits GH signaling, including attenuation of STAT5 activation. Here we describe a new function and mechanism of action for SOCS2.(More)
Cytokines that signal through the leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) receptor, such as LIF and ciliary neuronotrophic factor, have a wide range of roles within both the developing and mature nervous system. They play a vital role in the differentiation of neural precursor cells into astrocytes and can prevent or promote neuronal differentiation. One of the(More)
Neural trauma, such as traumatic brain injury or stroke, results in a vigorous inflammatory response at and near the site of injury, with cytokine production by endogenous glial cells and invading immune cells. Little is known of the effect that these cytokines have on neural stem cell function. Here we examine the effects of two inflammatory cytokines,(More)
Melanocytes in the skin are derived from the embryonic neural crest. Recently, mutations in endothelin 3 and the endothelin receptor B genes have been shown to result in gross pigment defects, indicating that this signalling pathway is required for melanocyte development. We have examined the effects of endothelins on melanocyte progenitors in cultures of(More)