Ann M. Graybiel

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Scientists in many different fields have been attracted to the study of habits because of the power habits have over behavior and because they invoke a dichotomy between the conscious, voluntary control over behavior, considered the essence of higher-order deliberative behavioral control, and lower-order behavioral control that is scarcely available to(More)
The basal ganglia have been implicated in motor planning and motor learning. In the study reported here, we directly tested for response plasticity in striatal neurons of macaque monkeys undergoing Pavlovian conditioning. To focus the study, we recorded from the tonically active neurons (TANs) of the striatum, which are known to respond to conditioned(More)
cAMP (3',5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) is a second messenger that in eukaryotic cells induces physiological responses ranging from growth, differentiation, and gene expression to secretion and neurotransmission. Most of these effects have been attributed to the binding of cAMP to cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). Here, a family of cAMP-binding(More)
The basal ganglia have become a focus for work on neurotransmitter interactions in the brain. These structures contain a remarkable diversity of neuroactive substances, organized into functional subsystems that have unique developmental histories and vulnerabilities in neurodegenerative diseases. A new view of the basal ganglia is emerging on the basis of(More)
Oscillatory rhythms in different frequency ranges mark different behavioral states and are thought to provide distinct temporal windows that coherently bind cooperating neuronal assemblies. However, the rhythms in different bands can also interact with each other, suggesting the possibility of higher-order representations of brain states by such rhythmic(More)
Amphetamine and cocaine are stimulant drugs that act on central monoaminergic neurons to produce both acute psychomotor activation and long-lasting behavioral effects including addiction and psychosis. Here we report that single doses of these drugs induce rapid expression of the nuclear proto-oncogene c-fos in the forebrain and particularly in the(More)
The basal ganglia have been shown to contribute to habit and stimulus-response (S-R) learning. These forms of learning have the property of slow acquisition and, in humans, can occur without conscious awareness. This paper proposes that one aspect of basal ganglia-based learning is the recoding of cortically derived information within the striatum. Modular(More)
Learning to perform a behavioural procedure as a well-ingrained habit requires extensive repetition of the behavioural sequence, and learning not to perform such behaviours is notoriously difficult. Yet regaining a habit can occur quickly, with even one or a few exposures to cues previously triggering the behaviour. To identify neural mechanisms that might(More)
The projection from the thalamic centre médian-parafascicular (CM-Pf) complex to the caudate nucleus and putamen forms a massive striatal input system in primates. We examined the activity of 118 neurons in the CM and 62 neurons in the Pf nuclei of the thalamus and 310 tonically active neurons (TANs) in the striatum in awake behaving macaque monkeys and(More)
Dysfunction of the nigrostriatal dopamine system results in marked disorders of movement such as occur in Parkinson's disease. Functions of this dopamine-containing projection system were examined in monkeys trained in a classical conditioning task, and the effects of striatal dopamine depletion were tested. Unilateral dopamine loss substantially reduced(More)