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This study examined whether the pattern of coordination between arm-reaching toward an object (hand transport) and the initiation of aperture closure for grasping is different between PD patients and healthy individuals, and whether that pattern is affected by the necessity to quickly adjust the reach-to-grasp movement in response to an unexpected shift of(More)
Studies indicate that rapid sequential movements are preprogrammed and that preprogramming increases with complexity, but more complex sequences that require on-line programming have been seldom been studied. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether on-line programming occurs in a 7-target sequence in which there is a unique target(More)
Eight people with Parkinson's disease (PD), 8 age-matched older adults, and 8 young adults executed 3-dimensional rapid aiming movements to 1, 3, 5, and 7 targets. Reaction time, flight time, and time after peak velocity to the 1st target indicated that both neurologically healthy groups implemented a plan on the basis of anticipation of upcoming targets,(More)
The purpose of this investigation was to examine how the programming and control of a rapid aiming sequence shifts with increased complexity. One objective was to determine if a preprogramming/peripheral constraint explanation is adequate to characterize control of an increasingly complex rapid aiming sequence, and if not, at what point on-line programming(More)
Postural control requires accurate integration of visual, vestibular, cutaneous, and proprioceptive sensory information. Previous research suggests that patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) may have difficulty with this integration process, particularly involving incongruent visual information. The purpose of this study was to determine whether PD(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine motor learning and retention given extensive practice in two fundamentally different movement sequences. One sequence was a memory-driven task (performing a series of whole body positions from memory) and the other a context-driven task (buttoning). Practice took place over 3 weeks, with performance measured weekly;(More)
Nine Parkinson's disease (PD), seven olivopontocerebellar atrophy (OPCA) patients and two age-matched control groups learned a linear arm movement-scaling task over 2 days, requiring movements proportional in length to visually presented target-bars. Scaling was acquired through knowledge of results (KR concerning the direction and magnitude of errors)(More)
Harmonic ratios (HRs), derived from trunk accelerations, measure smoothness of trunk motion during gait; higher ratios indicate greater smoothness. Previous research indicates that young adults optimize HRs at preferred pace, exhibiting reduced HRs at speeds faster and slower than preferred. Recent studies examining HRs and other trunk acceleration measures(More)
The purpose of this study was to examine the factors contributing to hand differences in rapid single finger tapping. To this end, task-defined temporal variables and motor outflow, as reflected by the magnitude and duration of force, were simultaneously measured. Thirty-one right-handed college age subjects performed a rapid finger-tapping task with the(More)
Kinematic changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) gait are well documented; however, upper body dynamics are less understood. Harmonic ratios (HRs) measure the rhythm of trunk accelerations and can be examined in the vertical, anterior-posterior, and mediolateral planes, providing an indication of global walking stability (lower HR indicates poorer stability).(More)