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The investigation of rodent cocaine self-administration (SA) under conditions that promote escalating patterns of intake may provide insight into the loss of control over drug use that is central to human addiction. This study examines the effects of daily long-access (LgA) SA of high or low cocaine doses on drug intake, extinction, reinstatement, and brain(More)
Salvinorin A is a naturally occurring hallucinogen derived from the plant Salvia divinorum. Salvinorin A is also a potent and selective kappa opioid receptor agonist in vitro. It has been shown that kappa agonists decrease dopamine levels in the caudate putamen and nucleus accumbens and cause conditioned place aversion in rodents. To study the effects of(More)
Endogenous central corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) may be involved in the neuroendocrine and behavioral responses to cocaine. In the present study, levels of CRF mRNA were measured in the hypothalamus and in several extrahypothalamic brain regions after different regimens of "binge"-pattern cocaine administration. Male Fischer rats were injected with(More)
Rationale: The characterization of self-administration (SA) under extended access conditions is necessary for the development of addiction models. Objective: The purposes of this experiment were to investigate: (1) dose effects on the initiation of cocaine SA under extended access conditions; (2) predictable individual differences in SA under these(More)
The most common single nucleotide polymorphism in the coding region of the human mu opioid receptor gene is the A118G variant, an adenine to guanine transition at nucleotide position 118 of the coding sequence of the gene. This polymorphism codes for an asparagine to aspartic acid substitution at amino acid 40 in the amino-terminus, thereby removing a(More)
Dynorphin peptides and the κ-opioid receptor are important in the rewarding properties of cocaine, heroin, and alcohol. We tested polymorphisms of the prodynorphin gene (PDYN) for association with cocaine dependence and cocaine/alcohol codependence. We genotyped six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), located in the promoter region, exon 4 coding, and(More)
One approach for studying cocaine addiction has been to permit escalating patterns of self-administration (SA) by rats by prolonging daily drug availability. Rats provided long access (LgA) to high cocaine doses, but not rats provided shorter cocaine access (ShA), progressively escalate their cocaine intake and display characteristics of human addiction.(More)
There is evidence that suggests that increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) release in the central nucleus of the amygdala underlies the anxiogenic and stress-like consequences of withdrawal that are common in phenomenology to all drugs of abuse. The present studies were undertaken to determine levels of CRH mRNA in the amygdala, and also in the(More)
Rat genome U34A (Affymetrix) oligonucleotide microarrays were used to analyze changes in gene expression in the caudate putamen (CPu) of Fischer rats induced by 1 and 3 days of "binge" cocaine (or saline) administration. A triplicate array assay of pooled RNA of each treatment group was used to evaluate the technical variability and sensitivity of(More)
In humans, mu- and kappa-opioid receptor agonists lower tuberoinfundibular dopamine, which tonically inhibits prolactin release. Serum prolactin is, therefore, a useful biomarker for tuberoinfundibular dopamine. The current study evaluated the unexpected finding that the relative mu- and kappa-opioid receptor selective antagonist nalmefene increases serum(More)