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OBJECTIVE—We examined preadipocyte differentiation in obese and nonobese individuals and the effect of cytokines and wingless-type MMTV (mouse mammary tumor virus) integration site family, member 3A (Wnt3a) protein on preadipocyte differentiation and phenotype. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—Abdominal subcuta-neous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained from a(More)
The metabolic syndrome is associated with a dysregulated adipose tissue; in part a consequence of adipose cell enlargement and the associated infiltration of macrophages. Adipose cell enlargement leads to a proinflammatory state in the cells with reduced secretion of adiponectin and with increased secretion of several cytokines and chemokines including(More)
Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), the sole retinol transporter in blood, is secreted from adipocytes and liver. Serum RBP4 levels correlate highly with insulin resistance, other metabolic syndrome factors, and cardiovascular disease. Elevated serum RBP4 causes insulin resistance, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Here we show that RBP4 induces(More)
The adipose tissue is crucial in regulating insulin sensitivity and risk for diabetes through its lipid storage capacity and thermogenic and endocrine functions. Subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) stores excess lipids through expansion of adipocytes (hypertrophic obesity) and/or recruitment of new precursor cells (hyperplastic obesity). Hypertrophic obesity(More)
T he current global diabetes epidemic is driven by obesity. However, many obese individuals do not develop insulin resistance or the metabolic complications. Inappropriate expansion of the sub-cutaneous adipose cells leads to hypertrophic obesity characterized by a dysregulated adipose tissue with insulin resistance and inflammation. Here, we discuss the(More)
Increased adipose tissue lipogenesis is associated with enhanced insulin sensitivity. Mice overexpressing the Glut4 glucose transporter in adipocytes have elevated lipogenesis and increased glucose tolerance despite being obese with elevated circulating fatty acids. Lipidomic analysis of adipose tissue revealed the existence of branched fatty acid esters of(More)
UNLABELLED BACKGROUND Obesity contributes to Type 2 diabetes by promoting systemic insulin resistance. Obesity causes features of metabolic dysfunction in the adipose tissue that may contribute to later impairments of insulin action in skeletal muscle and liver; these include reduced insulin-stimulated glucose transport, reduced expression of GLUT4,(More)
BACKGROUND Development of Type 2 diabetes, like obesity, is promoted by a genetic predisposition. Although several genetic variants have been identified they only account for a small proportion of risk. We have asked if genetic risk is associated with abnormalities in storing excess lipids in the abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue. (More)
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS Type 2 diabetes and obesity are associated with increased risk of site-specific cancers. We have investigated whether metabolic alterations at the level of adipose-derived differentiating cells may affect specific phenotypes of breast cancer cells. METHODS Growth profiles of breast cancer cell lines were evaluated in co-cultures with(More)
BACKGROUND The adipose tissue is important for development of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes and adipose tissue dysfunction has been proposed as an underlying cause. In the present study we investigated presence of adipocyte hypertrophy, and gene expression pattern of adipose tissue dysfunction in the subcutaneous adipose tissue of healthy,(More)