Ann E. Herman

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Induction of microgyria by freezing injury to the developing somatosensory cortex of neonatal rats causes a defect in fast auditory processing in males, but not in females. It was speculated that early damage to the cortex has sexually dimorphic cascading effects on other brain regions mediating auditory processing, which can lead to the observed behavioral(More)
CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmune disease, yet little is known about precisely where they exert their influence naturally in a spontaneous autoimmune disorder. Here, we report that Tregs and T effector cells (Teffs) coexist within the pancreatic lesion before type 1 diabetes onset. We find that BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic animals(More)
Foxp3 is required for the generation and activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells, which are important controllers of autoimmunity, including type-1 diabetes. To determine where T reg cells affect the diabetogenic cascade, we crossed the Foxp3 scurfy mutation, which eliminates T reg cells, with the BDC2.5 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mouse(More)
Freezing injury to the cortical plate of rats induces cerebrocortical microgyria and, in males but not females, a shift toward greater numbers of small neurons in the medial geniculate nucleus (MGN). The purpose of the current study was to examine a hormonal basis for this sex difference. Cross-sectional neuronal areas of the MGN were measured in male rats,(More)
Adjuvants increase vaccine potency largely by activating innate immunity and promoting inflammation. Limiting the side effects of this inflammation is a major hurdle for adjuvant use in vaccines for humans. It has been difficult to improve on adjuvant safety because of a poor understanding of adjuvant mechanism and the empirical nature of adjuvant discovery(More)
Lysosomal proteases generate peptides presented by class II MHC molecules to CD4+ T cells. To determine whether specific lysosomal proteases might influence the outcome of a CD4+ T cell-dependent autoimmune response, we generated mice that lack cathepsin L (Cat L) on the autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD inbred background. The absence of Cat L affords strong(More)
The glycine-rich G loop controls ATP binding and phosphate transfer in protein kinases. Here we show that the functions of Src family and Abl protein tyrosine kinases require an electrostatic interaction between oppositely charged amino acids within their G loops that is conserved in multiple other phylogenetically distinct protein kinases, from plants to(More)
Insufficient pancreatic β-cell mass or function results in diabetes mellitus. While significant progress has been made in regulating insulin secretion from β-cells in diabetic patients, no pharmacological agents have been described that increase β-cell replication in humans. Here we report aminopyrazine compounds that stimulate robust β-cell proliferation(More)
Purpose: To report a rare clinical case of recurrent heterotopic pregnancy in the same patient following bilateral salpingectomy and in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatments. Methods: A 35 year-old woman, suffering from mechanical infertility, was treated by IVF, resulting in two episodes of heterotopic pregnancies within 2 years. The first episode ended in(More)