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CD4+CD25+ T regulatory cells (Tregs) prevent autoimmune disease, yet little is known about precisely where they exert their influence naturally in a spontaneous autoimmune disorder. Here, we report that Tregs and T effector cells (Teffs) coexist within the pancreatic lesion before type 1 diabetes onset. We find that BDC2.5 T cell receptor transgenic animals(More)
Foxp3 is required for the generation and activity of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T (T reg) cells, which are important controllers of autoimmunity, including type-1 diabetes. To determine where T reg cells affect the diabetogenic cascade, we crossed the Foxp3 scurfy mutation, which eliminates T reg cells, with the BDC2.5 T cell receptor (TCR) transgenic mouse(More)
Lysosomal proteases generate peptides presented by class II MHC molecules to CD4+ T cells. To determine whether specific lysosomal proteases might influence the outcome of a CD4+ T cell-dependent autoimmune response, we generated mice that lack cathepsin L (Cat L) on the autoimmune diabetes-prone NOD inbred background. The absence of Cat L affords strong(More)
Insufficient pancreatic β-cell mass or function results in diabetes mellitus. While significant progress has been made in regulating insulin secretion from β-cells in diabetic patients, no pharmacological agents have been described that increase β-cell replication in humans. Here we report aminopyrazine compounds that stimulate robust β-cell proliferation(More)
Type-1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease targeting insulin-producing beta cells, resulting in dependence on exogenous insulin. To date, significant efforts have been invested to develop immune-modulatory therapies for T1D treatment. Previously, IL-2 immunotherapy was demonstrated to prevent and reverse T1D at onset in the non-obese diabetic (NOD)(More)
AIM/HYPOTHESIS Recent studies indicate that tyrosine kinase inhibitors, including imatinib, can reverse hyperglycemia in non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, a model of type 1 diabetes (T1D). Imatinib inhibits c-Abl, c-Kit, and PDGFRs. Next-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors for T1D treatment should maintain activities required for efficacy while sparing(More)
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