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BACKGROUND Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are progenitors of mesenchymal tissues such as bone, cartilage, and adipose. Adult human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched MSC have been used in cellular therapies of bone disorders such as osteogenesis imperfecta, with promising results. METHODS A female fetus with multiple intrauterine fractures, diagnosed as severe(More)
Fragile X syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by large methylated expansions of a CGG repeat (>200) region upstream of the FMR1 gene that results in the lack of expression of the fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP). Affected individuals display a neurobehavioral phenotype that includes a significant impairment in social(More)
Deficiency of cartilage-associated protein (CRTAP) or prolyl 3-hydroxylase 1(P3H1) has been reported in autosomal-recessive lethal or severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). CRTAP, P3H1, and cyclophilin B (CyPB) form an intracellular collagen-modifying complex that 3-hydroxylates proline at position 986 (P986) in the alpha1 chains of collagen type I. This(More)
OBJECTIVE To obtain penetrance data for Huntington's disease when DNA results are in the range of 36-39 CAG repeats and assess the consistency of reporting the upper allele from two reference centres. METHOD Data were collected anonymously on age of onset or age last known to be unaffected from a cohort of individuals with results in this range. DNA(More)
Fragile X syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder that is caused by the silencing of a single gene on the X chromosome, the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene. Affected individuals display a unique neurocognitive phenotype that includes significant impairment in inhibitory control, selective attention, working memory, and visual-spatial cognition.(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in the spastin gene are the commonest cause of hereditary spastic paraparesis (HSP), accounting for up to 40% of autosomal dominant cases. The phenotype associated with HSP due to mutation in the spastin gene (SPG4) tends to be pure HSP. OBJECTIVE To characterize in more detail the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of SPG4 by(More)
Osteogenesis Imperfecta (OI) is a heterogeneous group of inherited disorders characterized by increased bone fragility, with clinical severity ranging from mild to lethal. To date, seven types of OI have been described, based on clinical phenotype and histological findings. Most patients with a clinical diagnosis of OI type I-IV have a mutation in the(More)
Previous studies have failed to identify mutations in the Wilson's disease gene ATP7B in a significant number of clinically diagnosed cases. This has led to concerns about genetic heterogeneity for this condition but also suggested the presence of unusual mutational mechanisms. We now present our findings in 181 patients from the United Kingdom with(More)
The hereditary spastic paraplegias (HSP) are a heterogeneous group of conditions in which the main feature is a progressive spastic paraparesis. Mutations in the receptor expression enhancing protein 1 (REEP1) gene have recently been reported to be associated with an autosomal dominant HSP phenotype (SPG31). The objective of this study was to identify the(More)
Accurate clinical diagnosis of the spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) can be difficult because of overlap in phenotype with other disorders and variation in clinical manifestations. Six SCA loci have been mapped and four disease causing genes identified, in addition to the causative gene for Friedreich's ataxia (FA). All of the identified mutations are(More)