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RATIONALE Exacerbations of COPD are defined clinically by worsening of chronic respiratory symptoms. Chronic respiratory symptoms are common in the general population. There are no data on the frequency of exacerbation-like events in individuals without spirometric evidence of COPD. AIMS To determine the occurrence of 'exacerbation-like' events in(More)
Results are presented from an in vivo study of human skin in which a zig-zag surface coil together with a three-pulse Fourier Series Window (FSW) protocol have been used to obtain minimally contaminated 31P skin spectra of the posterior calf. Phantom experiments indicate that while the fall-off in the B1 field profile of the zig-zag surface coil is superior(More)
The use of a zig-zag surface coil with a three-pulse Fourier Series Window (FSW) has been suggested as a means by which in vivo NMR spectroscopic studies of human skin can be performed. Using direct numerical simulations of the magnetic field profile of a 10 limb zig-zag surface coil, the role of the FSW in reducing NMR signals originating from the deeper(More)
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