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JSTOR is a not-for-profit service that helps scholars, researchers, and students discover, use, and build upon a wide range of content in a trusted digital archive. We use information technology and tools to increase productivity and facilitate new forms of scholarship. For more information about JSTOR, please contact support@jstor.org.. The University of(More)
CONTEXT The spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria is associated with antibiotic use. Children receive a significant proportion of the antibiotics prescribed each year and represent an important target group for efforts aimed at reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. OBJECTIVE To evaluate antibiotic-prescribing practices for children younger than 18 years(More)
OBJECTIVE We conducted a case-control study to evaluate risk factors for invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children who were aged 3 to 59 months in the era of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7). METHODS IPD cases were identified through routine surveillance during 2001-2004. We matched a median of 3 control subjects to each case patient by age(More)
BACKGROUND When seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was introduced in the USA, many children were vaccinated on schedules that differed from those tested in clinical trials. Our aim was to assess the effectiveness of the vaccine against various pneumococcal serotypes, and to measure the effectiveness of the recommended dose schedule and of catch-up(More)
BACKGROUND Intravenous prostanoids (epoprostenol and treprostinil) are effective therapies for pulmonary arterial hypertension but carry a risk of catheter-related bloodstream infection (CR-BSI). Prevention of CR-BSI during long-term use of indwelling central venous catheters is important. OBJECTIVE To evaluate whether using a closed-hub system and(More)
BACKGROUND Perioperative surgical site infection (SSI) after pediatric spine fusion is a recognized complication with rates between 0.5% and 1.6% in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and up to 22% in "high risk" patients. Significant variation in the approach to infection prophylaxis has been well documented. The purpose of this initiative is to develop a(More)
Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) for enterovirus RNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) have emerged as the new gold standard for diagnosis of enteroviral meningitis, and their use can improve the management and decrease the costs for caring for children with enteroviral meningitis. The Xpert EV assay (Cepheid, Sunnyvale, CA) is a rapid, fully automated(More)
BACKGROUND Notifying patients of gonorrhea and chlamydia test results using online services may improve clinic efficiency and increase receipt of test results. This study evaluated the implementation of an online results system in an urban sexually transmitted infections clinic. METHODS Using the clinic's electronic medical records system to assess if and(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical site infections (SSI) associated with elective pediatric spinal surgery are a commonly reported complication, increasing hospital length of stay, readmissions, operations, and financial costs. In July 2007, a multidisciplinary task force, designated Target Zero, was created to address this issue and establish prevention protocols at our(More)