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In order to determine the ventilatory threshold (VT) and the lactate threshold (LT) in a reliable way, a new method is proposed and compared with conventional methods. The new method consists of calculating the point that yields the maximal distance from a curve representing ventilatory and metabolic variables as a function of oxygen uptake (VO2) to the(More)
OBJECTIVE The double pole technique (DP) has been shown to be more economical than the V1 skate technique (V1 ) on flat terrain. The objective of the present study was to compare these two techniques during uphill roller skiing. In addition, the physiological effects of changing roller ski rolling resistance was examined for V1. METHODS Five female and(More)
Hyperglycemia causes oxidative damage in tissues prone to complications in diabetes. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the red to near infrared range (630-1000nm) has been shown to accelerate diabetic wound healing. To test the hypothesis that LLLT would attenuate oxidative renal damage in Type I diabetic rats, male Wistar rats were made diabetic with(More)
To study the physiological response to heavy training, seven male competitive cyclists intensified their normal training program for two weeks (IIT) in order to achieve a state of short-term overtraining. The subjects underwent a graded cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, an outdoor 8.5 km time trial and a computerized test to study reaction time and visual(More)
Despite interest in competitive strategy by coaches and athletes, there are no systematically collected data regarding the effect of differences in pacing strategy on the outcome of middle distance (2-4 min duration) events. In this study different pacing strategies were evaluated using a 2-km time trial on a bicycle attached to a wind load simulator.(More)
INTRODUCTION We have previously hypothesized restricted muscle blood flow during speed skating, secondary to the high intramuscular forces intrinsic to the unique posture assumed by speed skaters and to the prolonged duty cycle of the skating stroke. METHODS To test this hypothesis, we studied speed skaters (N = 10) during submaximal and maximal cycling(More)
The exercise intensity associated with an elevated but stable blood lactate (HLa) concentration during constant load work (the maximal steady state, MSS) has received attention as a candidate for the "optimal" exercise intensity for endurance training. Identification of MSS ordinarily demands direct measurement of HLa or respiratory metabolism. The purpose(More)
Laboratory studies with competitive athletes often use graded exercise protocols to elicit physiologic responses. This pattern of power output is different than ordinarily employed by athletes during competition. To understand the physiologic responses during competition, we studied 24 athletes (speed skaters, cyclists, triathletes) during simulated(More)
Circulatory leukocytes vary significantly in response to acute bouts of exercise. However, little is known concerning the adaptability of this response to chronic intense exercise training. We investigated the circulating leukocytic response to acute exercise in trained athletes during a 28-day intense exercise training program. On day 0, 14, 28 and two(More)