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In order to determine the ventilatory threshold (VT) and the lactate threshold (LT) in a reliable way, a new method is proposed and compared with conventional methods. The new method consists of calculating the point that yields the maximal distance from a curve representing ventilatory and metabolic variables as a function of oxygen uptake (VO2) to the(More)
The cross-training (XT) hypothesis suggests that despite the principle of specificity of training, athletes may improve performance in one mode of exercise by training using another mode. To test this hypothesis we studied 30 well-trained individuals (10 men, 20 women) in a randomized longitudinal trail. Subjects were evaluated before and after 8 weeks of(More)
Hyperglycemia causes oxidative damage in tissues prone to complications in diabetes. Low-level light therapy (LLLT) in the red to near infrared range (630-1000nm) has been shown to accelerate diabetic wound healing. To test the hypothesis that LLLT would attenuate oxidative renal damage in Type I diabetic rats, male Wistar rats were made diabetic with(More)
OBJECTIVE The double pole technique (DP) has been shown to be more economical than the V1 skate technique (V1 ) on flat terrain. The objective of the present study was to compare these two techniques during uphill roller skiing. In addition, the physiological effects of changing roller ski rolling resistance was examined for V1. METHODS Five female and(More)
Despite interest in competitive strategy by coaches and athletes, there are no systematically collected data regarding the effect of differences in pacing strategy on the outcome of middle distance (2-4 min duration) events. In this study different pacing strategies were evaluated using a 2-km time trial on a bicycle attached to a wind load simulator.(More)
To study the physiological response to heavy training, seven male competitive cyclists intensified their normal training program for two weeks (IIT) in order to achieve a state of short-term overtraining. The subjects underwent a graded cycle ergometer test to exhaustion, an outdoor 8.5 km time trial and a computerized test to study reaction time and visual(More)
Amenorrheic runners (AR; N = 8), regularly menstruating runners (RMR; N = 9), and regularly menstruating sedentary controls (RMSC; N = 7) were compared for plasma progesterone levels, plasma lipid levels, menstrual cycle characteristics, physical characteristics, and nutritional adequacy to determine whether exercise training was the major factor associated(More)
Athletic performance generally is thought to improve with increases in training load. However, few data exist showing the quantitative relationship between training load and performance. We followed 56 athletes (16 runners; 40 cyclists/speed skaters) during 12 weeks of training. We recorded index performances (3.2 km time trial or 5 or 10 km bicycle(More)
Laboratory studies with competitive athletes often use graded exercise protocols to elicit physiologic responses. This pattern of power output is different than ordinarily employed by athletes during competition. To understand the physiologic responses during competition, we studied 24 athletes (speed skaters, cyclists, triathletes) during simulated(More)