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The mechanisms of human mutant superoxide dismutase-1 (mSOD1) toxicity to motor neurons (MNs) are unresolved. We show that MNs in G93A-mSOD1 transgenic mice undergo slow degeneration lacking similarity to apoptosis structurally and biochemically. It is characterized by somal and mitochondrial swelling and formation of DNA single-strand breaks prior to(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease of motor neurons (MNs) that causes paralysis. Some forms of ALS are inherited, caused by mutations in the superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD1) gene. The mechanisms of human mutant SOD1 (mSOD1) toxicity to MNs are unresolved. Mitochondria in MNs might be key sites for ALS pathogenesis, but(More)
Alpha-synuclein (alpha-Syn) is enriched in nerve terminals. Two mutations in the alpha-Syn gene (Ala53--> Thr and Ala30--> Pro) occur in autosomal dominant familial Parkinson's disease. Mice overexpressing the human A53T mutant alpha-Syn develop a severe movement disorder, paralysis, and synucleinopathy, but the mechanisms are not understood. We examined(More)
DNA methylation is an epigenetic mechanism for gene silencing engaged by DNA methyltransferase (Dnmt)-catalyzed methyl group transfer to cytosine residues in gene-regulatory regions. It is unknown whether aberrant DNA methylation can cause neurodegeneration. We tested the hypothesis that Dnmts can mediate neuronal cell death. Enforced expression of Dnmt3a(More)
The mechanisms for motor neuron degeneration and regeneration in adult spinal cord following axotomy and target deprivation are not fully understood. We used a unilateral sciatic nerve avulsion model in adult rats to test the hypothesis that retrograde degeneration of motor neurons resembles apoptosis. By 21 days postlesion, the number of large motor(More)
Remyelination, albeit incomplete, has been demonstrated in human central nervous system (CNS). However, information about the initial stage and the final extent of such remyelination is not available. We describe the morphologic findings of a demyelinating lesion with evidence of early remyelination in a biopsy obtained from a 15-year-old boy about two(More)
The mechanisms for neurodegeneration after hypoxia-ischemia (HI) in newborns are not understood. We tested the hypothesis that striatal neuron death is necrosis and evolves with oxidative stress and selective organelle damage. Piglets ( approximately 1 week old) were used in a model of hypoxia-asphyxia and survived for 3, 6, 12, or 24 h. Neuronal death was(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also referred to as motor neurone disease, is a fatal neurological disease that is characterized clinically by progressive muscle weakness, muscle atrophy, and eventual paralysis. The neuropathology of ALS is primary degeneration of upper (motor cortical) and lower (brainstem and spinal) motor neurons. The amyotrophy(More)
Ablation of mouse occipital cortex induces precisely timed and uniform p53-modulated and Bax-dependent apoptosis of thalamocortical projection neurons in the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) by 7 d after lesion. We tested the hypothesis that this neuronal apoptosis is initiated by oxidative stress and the mitochondrial permeability transition pore(More)
Mitochondria have roles or appear to have roles in the pathogenesis of several chronic age-related and acute neurological disorders, including Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral ischemia, and could be critical targets for development of rational mechanism-based, disease-modifying therapeutics for(More)