Ann Blandford

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We propose the CARE properties as a simple way of characterising and assessing aspects of multimodal interaction: the Complementarity, Assignment, Redundancy, and Equivalence that may occur between the interaction techniques available in a multimodal user interface. We provide a formal definition of these properties and use the notion of compatibility to(More)
Some studies of diaries and scheduling systems have considered how individuals use diaries with a view to proposing requirements for computerised time management tools. Others have focused on the criteria for success of group scheduling systems. Few have paid attention to how people use a battery of tools as an ensemble. This interview study reports how(More)
Distributed Cognition is growing in popularity as a way of reasoning about group working and the design of artefacts within work systems. DiCoT (Distributed Cognition for Teamwork) is a methodology and representational system we are developing to support distributed cognition analysis of small team working. It draws on ideas from Contextual Design, but(More)
The Cognitive Dimensions framework has inspired research both more and less varied than expected. In this paper we revisit the original aims and briefly describe some subsequent research, to consider whether the original aims were too austere in rejecting knowledge-based dimensions; whether the dimensions can be shown to have real-world relevance; and(More)
Situation Awareness, and how systems can be designed to support it appropriately, have been a focus of study in dynamic, safety critical contexts such as aviation. The work reported here extends the study of situation awareness into the domain of Emergency Medical Dispatch (EMD). The study was conducted in one of the largest ambulance services in the world.(More)
In most online citizen science projects, a large proportion of participants contribute in small quantities. To investigate how low contributors differ from committed volunteers, we distributed a survey to members of the Old Weather project, followed by interviews with respondents selected according to a range of contribution levels. The studies reveal a(More)
A postcompletion error (PCE) is a specific kind of cognitive slip that involves omitting a final task step after the main goal of the task is accomplished. It is notoriously difficult to provoke (and hence study) slips under experimental conditions. In this paper, the authors present an experimental task paradigm that has been shown to be effective for(More)
The temporal elements of users' information requirements are a continually confounding aspect of digital library design. No sooner have users' needs been identified and supported than they change. This paper evaluates the changing information requirements of users through their 'information journey' in two different domains (health and academia). In-depth(More)
hence of what they can do in those libraries, is encapsulated in their “mental models” of those libraries. In this article, we present a focused case study of users’ mental models of traditional and digital libraries based on observations and interviews with eight participants. It was found that a poor understanding of access restrictions led to risk-averse(More)