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Natural killer (NK) cells express inhibitory receptors for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigens, preventing attack against healthy cells. Mouse cytomegalovirus (MCMV) encodes an MHC-like protein (m157) that binds to an inhibitory NK cell receptor in certain MCMV-susceptible mice. In MCMV-resistant mice, this viral protein engages a(More)
During persistent murine cytomegalovirus (MCMV) infection, the T cell response is maintained at extremely high intensity for the life of the host. These cells closely resemble human CMV-specific cells, which compose a major component of the peripheral T cell compartment in most people. Despite a phenotype that suggests extensive antigen-driven(More)
CMVs are beta herpesviruses that establish lifelong latent infection of their hosts. Acute infection of C57BL/6 mice with murine CMV elicits a very broad CD8 T cell response, comprising at least 24 epitopes from 18 viral proteins. In contrast, we show here that the CD8 T cell response in chronically infected mice was dominated by only five epitopes.(More)
Human CMV establishes a lifelong latent infection in the majority of people worldwide. Although most infections are asymptomatic, immunocompetent hosts devote an extraordinary amount of immune resources to virus control. To increase our understanding of CMV immunobiology in an animal model, we used a genomic approach to comprehensively map the C57BL/6 CD8 T(More)
Murine CMV (MCMV) encodes three viral genes that interfere with Ag presentation (VIPRs) to CD8 T cells, m04, m06, and m152. Because the functional impact of these genes during normal infection of C57BL/6 mice is surprisingly modest, we wanted to determine whether the VIPRs are equally effective against the entire spectrum of H-2(b)-restricted CD8 T cell(More)
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP47 protein inhibits the MHC class I antigen presentation pathway by inhibiting the transporter associated with antigen presentation (TAP) which translocates peptides across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. At present, ICP47 is the only inhibitor of TAP. Here, we show that ICP47 produced in bacteria can block human, but(More)
Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection continues to be a complication in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Preexisting donor immunity is recognized as a favorable prognostic factor for the reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity mediated primarily by CD8 T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CMV-specific memory CD8 T(More)
CD8+ T cells can be primed by peptides derived from endogenous proteins (direct presentation), or exogenously acquired protein (cross-presentation). However, the relative ability of these two pathways to prime CD8+ T cells during a viral infection remains controversial. Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) can infect professional antigen presenting cells (APCs),(More)
Persistent virus infections create specific problems for their hosts. Although the dynamics of immune responses after acute infection are well studied and very consistent, especially in mouse models, the patterns of responses noted during persistent infection are more complex and differ depending on the infection. In particular, CD8+ T cell responses differ(More)
The herpes simplex virus (HSV) immediate early protein ICP47 inhibits the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP)-dependent peptide translocation. As a consequence, empty major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum and recognition of HSV-infected cells by cytotoxic T lymphocytes is(More)