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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with psychiatric complications including cognitive impairment, affective disorders, and psychosis. Previous studies have revealed a disturbed kynurenine metabolism in these patients leading to increased levels of neuroactive compounds acting at glutamatergic neurotransmission. Kynurenic(More)
IL-7 promotes survival of resting T lymphocytes and induces T cell proliferation in lymphopenic conditions. As elevated IL-7 levels occur in HIV-infected individuals in addition to high Fas expression on T cells and increased sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, we analyzed whether IL-7 has a regulatory role in Fas-mediated T cell apoptosis. We show that(More)
HIV-1 infection is associated with B-cell abnormalities, such as hypergammaglobulinemia, poor immunization responses, and loss of serologic memory. To determine whether altered expression of chemokine receptors and their ligands may play a role in B-cell dysfunctions during HIV-1 infection, the expression of CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4), CXCR5, and CC(More)
Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation occur in mature B-cells in response to antigen stimulation. These processes are crucial for the generation of functional antibodies. During HIV-1 infection, loss of memory B-cells, together with an altered differentiation of naïve B-cells result in production of low quality antibodies, which may be due to(More)
T-cell depletion associated with HIV infection or cytoreductive therapies triggers potential T-cell regenerative mechanisms such as peripheral T-lymphocyte expansion to weak antigenic stimuli and the increased availability of interleukin-7 (IL-7), a cytokine with potent antiapoptotic and proliferative activities. Deleterious mechanisms also associated with(More)
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 encephalitis (HSE) is a viral infectious disease with commonly occurring neurodegeneration and neurological/cognitive long-term sequelae. Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive tryptophan metabolite, which is elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) during viral infection as a result of immune activation. The aim of the(More)
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