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Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection is associated with psychiatric complications including cognitive impairment, affective disorders, and psychosis. Previous studies have revealed a disturbed kynurenine metabolism in these patients leading to increased levels of neuroactive compounds acting at glutamatergic neurotransmission. Kynurenic(More)
As CD8+CD28- T cells have been associated with dendritic and T cell suppression, we analyzed whether an increase in CD8+CD28- T cell numbers during HIV-1 infection could lead to impaired T cell responses. In contrast to the in-vitro generated CD8+CD28- suppressors, peripheral blood CD8+CD28- T cells of both HIV-infected and noninfected individuals promoted(More)
The objective of this study was to investigate the short-term virological outcome of antiretroviral combination therapy (ART) in relation to infection with different HIV-1 genetic subtypes. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients in Sweden were prospectively enrolled and followed for 6 months when starting ART in the period from January 1998 to January 2002.(More)
The genetic variations of the HIV-1 virus and its human host constitute major obstacles for obtaining potent HIV-1-specific CTL responses in individuals of diverse ethnic backgrounds infected with different HIV-1 variants. In this study, we developed and used a novel algorithm to select 184 predicted epitopes representing seven different HLA class I(More)
OBJECTIVE Elevated levels of interleukin (IL)-7 are present in the blood of HIV-positive patients and it is known that IL-7 receptor (IL-7R)alpha expression decreases on T cells during HIV infection. The subset(s) of T cells with low IL-7Ralpha and the consequence of low IL-7Ralpha expression for T-cell survival are poorly characterized. DESIGN The(More)
Circulating memory B cells are severely reduced in the peripheral blood of HIV-1-infected patients. We investigated whether dysfunctional serologic memory to non-HIV antigens is related to disease progression by evaluating the frequency of memory B cells, plasma IgG, plasma levels of antibodies to measles, and Streptococcus pneumoniae, and enumerating(More)
IL-7 promotes survival of resting T lymphocytes and induces T cell proliferation in lymphopenic conditions. As elevated IL-7 levels occur in HIV-infected individuals in addition to high Fas expression on T cells and increased sensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, we analyzed whether IL-7 has a regulatory role in Fas-mediated T cell apoptosis. We show that(More)
Class switch recombination and somatic hypermutation occur in mature B-cells in response to antigen stimulation. These processes are crucial for the generation of functional antibodies. During HIV-1 infection, loss of memory B-cells, together with an altered differentiation of naïve B-cells result in production of low quality antibodies, which may be due to(More)
T-cell depletion associated with HIV infection or cytoreductive therapies triggers potential T-cell regenerative mechanisms such as peripheral T-lymphocyte expansion to weak antigenic stimuli and the increased availability of interleukin-7 (IL-7), a cytokine with potent antiapoptotic and proliferative activities. Deleterious mechanisms also associated with(More)
We showed that HIV infection is associated with an increased proportion of IL-7Ra low/negative peripheral T lymphocytes. Down-regulation of IL-7Rα on T cells was correlated with the depletion of CD4+ T cells and also with the increased concentration of serum IL-7. The decreased IL-7Rα expression resulted in the reduced survival capacity of T cells in(More)