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The mechanism of membrane interaction of two amphipathic antimicrobial peptides, MSI-78 and MSI-594, derived from magainin-2 and melittin, is presented. Both the peptides show excellent antimicrobial activity. The 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid uptake experiment using Escherichia coli cells suggests that the outer membrane permeabilization is mainly(More)
Monoamine oxidases A and B have identical flavin sites but different, although overlapping, amine substrate specificity. Reoxidation of ternary complexes containing substrate is much faster than of free enzyme, and the enhancement is greater in the A form than the B form. The oxidative half-reaction was studied with a variety of substrates to elucidate the(More)
Tachyplesin I is a cyclic beta-sheet antimicrobial peptide isolated from the hemocytes of Tachypleus tridentatus. The four cysteine residues in tachyplesin I play a structural role in imparting amphipathicity to the peptide which has been shown to be essential for its activity. We investigated the role of amphipathicity using an analogue of tachyplesin I(More)
A 15-residue peptide dimer G15 derived from the cell lytic protein granulysin has been shown to exert potent activity against microbes, including E. coli, but not against human Jurkat cells [Z. Wang, E. Choice, A. Kaspar, D. Hanson, S. Okada, S.C. Lyu, A.M. Krensky, C. Clayberger, Bactericidal and tumoricidal activities of synthetic peptides derived from(More)
The partition equilibria of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and lithium dodecyl sulfate between water and bilayer membranes were investigated with isothermal titration calorimetry and spectroscopic methods (light scattering, (31)P-nuclear magnetic resonance) in the temperature range of 28 degrees C to 56 degrees C. The partitioning of the dodecyl sulfate anion(More)
Carboxy-terminal lysine residues on the surface of cells and fibrin bind plasminogen and control its activation. Since plasma contains basic carboxypeptidases, which remove carboxy-terminal lysines from protein substrates, we investigated if these enzymes are involved in the regulation of plasminogen binding sites. Plasma reduced plasminogen binding to(More)
A 21-residue peptide segment, LL7-27 (RKSKEKIGKEFKRIVQRIKDF), corresponding to residues 7-27 of the only human cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide, LL37, is shown to exhibit potent activity against microbes (particularly Gram-positive bacteria) but not against erythrocytes. The structure, membrane orientation, and target membrane selectivity of LL7-27 are(More)
Lipopeptide MSI-843 consisting of the nonstandard amino acid ornithine (Oct-OOLLOOLOOL-NH2) was designed with an objective towards generating non-lytic short antimicrobial peptides, which can have significant pharmaceutical applications. Octanoic acid was coupled to the N-terminus of the peptide to increase the overall hydrophobicity of the peptide. MSI-843(More)
Cyclodextrins are able to bind hydrophobic molecules in their interior cavity and as such have received a great deal of attention as carriers of cholesterol, lipophilic drugs, and other sparingly soluble compounds. Despite the importance of these biochemical applications, relatively little is known about the interactions of cyclodextrins with phospholipid(More)
The bifunctional proline catabolic flavoenzyme, proline utilization A (PutA), catalyzes the oxidation of proline to glutamate via the sequential activities of FAD-dependent proline dehydrogenase (PRODH) and NAD(+)-dependent Delta(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate dehydrogenase (P5CDH) domains. Although structures for some of the domains of PutA are known, a(More)