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Shear stress and the endothelium. Vascular endothelial cells (ECs) in vivo are influenced by two distinct hemodynamic forces: cyclical strain due to vessel wall distention by transmural pressure, and shear stress, the frictional force generated by blood flow. Shear stress acts at the apical cell surface to deform cells in the direction of blood flow; wall(More)
BACKGROUND The interruption of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) signaling with dominant negative type II TGF-beta receptors in bovine glomerular endothelial cells abrogates capillary morphogenesis in vitro, and genetic defects in the TGF-beta1 signaling cascade in mice and humans result in abnormalities of blood vessel morphology. This study(More)
A quantitative analysis of the distribution of microvascular blood flow and oxygen delivery requires a detailed description of the vascular network geometry. The distributions of lengths and diameters were determined in terminal arteriolar networks of the cheek pouch retractor muscle of young (34 +/- 2 days) hamsters. We compared the Strahler centripetal(More)
Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) is strongly expressed during embryogenesis and in sites undergoing intense development and morphogenesis. Two receptor serine/threonine kinases (types I and II) have been identified as signal-transducing TGF-beta receptors. This study was undertaken to further explore the role of the distinct TGF-beta receptors(More)
To further define the role of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) receptors in renal vascular development, detailed immunohistochemical studies of TGF-beta receptor expression were performed from gestational day 15 through adulthood. On gestational day 15, TGF-beta type II receptor immunoreactivity was restricted to perirenal stromal and vascular(More)
OBJECTIVE The absence of endothelial cells at the luminal surface of a prosthetic vascular graft potentiates thrombosis and neointimal hyperplasia, which are common causes of graft failure in humans. This study tested the hypothesis that pretreatment with chronic in vitro shear stress enhances subsequent endothelial cell retention on vascular grafts(More)
Mechanisms that regulate the activity of the plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein (lipid protein transfer-I) are poorly understood. We have examined the role of endogenous regulators of the lipid transfer process, in particular the plasma high-density lipoproteins (HDLs), in both humans and two species previously reported to be devoid of cholesteryl(More)
The geometry of the arteriolar network is one of the major determinants of blood flow distribution within a tissue. The purpose of this study was to describe the distribution of geometrical variables (lengths, diameters) as well as the pattern of branching in the nonarcading portion of the arteriolar network in skeletal muscle. The exteriorized cat(More)
Morphometric information on the terminal arteriolar networks (n = 10) in cat sartorius muscle [Koller et al., Am. J. Physiol. 253 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 22): H154-H164, 1987] is utilized in the calculations of distribution of vascular hindrance throughout the networks. These networks have tree-type geometry, i.e., they do not contain closed loops. The(More)
Diabetic osteoporosis continues to surge worldwide, increasing the risk of fracture. We have previously demonstrated that haploinsufficiency of endogenous parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) impairs fracture healing. However, whether an exogenous supply of PTHrP can repair bone damage and accelerate fracture healing remains unclear. This study aimed(More)