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Abnormal T cell responses to commensal bacteria are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. MyD88 is an essential signal transducer for TLRs in response to the microflora. We hypothesized that TLR signaling via MyD88 was important for effector T cell responses in the intestine. TLR expression on murine T cells was examined by flow(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Chronic inflammation is a risk factor for colon cancer in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). The molecular mechanisms linking inflammation and colon carcinogenesis are incompletely understood. We tested the hypothesis that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is involved in tumorigenesis in the setting of chronic inflammation. METHODS Tissues(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS We recently showed that mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or its adapter molecule MyD88 have increased signs of colitis compared with wild-type (WT) mice after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced injury. We wished to test the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is important in TLR4-related(More)
Dysregulated innate immune responses to commensal bacteria contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TLR4 is overexpressed in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients and may contribute to uncontrolled inflammation. However, TLR4 is also an important mediator of intestinal repair. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of a(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with ulcerative colitis are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. We have shown that Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is overexpressed in human colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and that mice deficient in TLR4 are markedly protected against colitis-associated neoplasia. We wished to elucidate the specific contributions of TLR4(More)
PURPOSE Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is a marker of intestinal differentiation that may also play a role in cancer cell biology by inhibiting cell adhesion, promoting cell invasion, and blocking apoptosis. Gastric adenocarcinomas can arise through a process of intestinalization, but no study has yet comprehensively examined the expression of ITF in(More)
Epiregulin (EPI) and amphiregulin (AR) are epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligands implicated in mucosal repair and tumorigenesis. We have shown that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) induces intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) proliferation by activating EGFR through AR expression. We examined whether TLR4 differentially regulates expression of EGFR ligands(More)
Deaths from colorectal cancer are often due to liver metastasis. Trefoil factor-3 (TFF3) is expressed by normal intestinal epithelial cells and its expression is maintained throughout the colon adenoma-carcinoma sequence. Our previous work demonstrated a correlation between TFF3 expression and metastatic potential in an animal model of colon cancer. The aim(More)
BACKGROUND AND AIM Trefoil factor family 3 (TFF3) is expressed by intestinal epithelial cells and it mainly functions to protect the mucosa from injury. Expression of TFF3 has been correlated with a poor prognosis in patients with cancer, but little is known about whether TFF3 directly contributes to the malignant behavior of cancer cells. The present study(More)
BACKGROUND The expression and distribution of farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in colitis and colitis-associated neoplasia (CAN) is unknown. We investigated FXR expression in neoplastic and nonneoplastic tissue from ulcerative colitis (UC) patients, with or without primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC), as well as the role of DNA methylation in FXR expression in(More)