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BACKGROUND & AIMS We recently showed that mice deficient in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) or its adapter molecule MyD88 have increased signs of colitis compared with wild-type (WT) mice after dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced injury. We wished to test the hypothesis that cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2)-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is important in TLR4-related(More)
Abnormal T cell responses to commensal bacteria are involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. MyD88 is an essential signal transducer for TLRs in response to the microflora. We hypothesized that TLR signaling via MyD88 was important for effector T cell responses in the intestine. TLR expression on murine T cells was examined by flow(More)
MUC2 and MUC3 are prominent mucin genes expressed in the human intestine. Using in situ hybridization with RNA probes, we examined the cellular distribution of MUC2 and MUC3 mRNA in normal, malignant, and inflammatory human intestinal tissues. In normal small intestine and colon, MUC2 mRNA was expressed exclusively in goblet cells and occurred throughout(More)
Complementary DNA clones encoding four different mucin core peptides have been isolated. However, the expression of these mucin genes in the colon has not been systematically studied. The present investigation used Northern blot analysis to study the expression of MUC1, MUC2, MUC3, and MUC4 mRNA in paired normal and cancerous colonic tissues, and nine colon(More)
Immunohistochemical studies have indicated that sialylated carbohydrate antigens such as sialyl-Tn, sialyl-Le(a), and sialyl-Le(x) are expressed in a tumor-associated fashion in human colon. Since sialic acid residues are O-acetylated more extensively in normal colonic epithelium than in colon cancer cells, we examined whether deacetylation of colonic(More)
BACKGROUND Patients with ulcerative colitis are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. We have shown that Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) is overexpressed in human colitis-associated cancer (CAC) and that mice deficient in TLR4 are markedly protected against colitis-associated neoplasia. We wished to elucidate the specific contributions of TLR4(More)
PURPOSE Intestinal trefoil factor (ITF) is a marker of intestinal differentiation that may also play a role in cancer cell biology by inhibiting cell adhesion, promoting cell invasion, and blocking apoptosis. Gastric adenocarcinomas can arise through a process of intestinalization, but no study has yet comprehensively examined the expression of ITF in(More)
Monoclonal antibodies TKH2 and B72.3, which react with the mucin-associated sialyl-Tn(STn) antigen, preferentially bind to cancerous but not normal colonic tissues. If O-acetyl groups are removed by saponification of tissues, MAb TKH2 will react with normal colonocytes, whereas MAb B72.3 remains non-reactive. To explain this difference in binding(More)
Dysregulated innate immune responses to commensal bacteria contribute to the development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). TLR4 is overexpressed in the intestinal mucosa of IBD patients and may contribute to uncontrolled inflammation. However, TLR4 is also an important mediator of intestinal repair. The aim of this study is to examine the effect of a(More)
BACKGROUND We have previously found that TLR4-deficient (TLR4-/-) mice demonstrate decreased expression of mucosal PGE 2 and are protected against colitis-associated neoplasia. However, it is still unclear whether PGE 2 is the central factor downstream of TLR4 signaling that promotes intestinal tumorigenesis. To further elucidate critical downstream(More)