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The malignant brain cancer medulloblastoma is characterized by mutations in Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway genes, which lead to constitutive activation of the G protein (heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate-binding protein)-coupled receptor Smoothened (Smo). The Smo antagonist NVP-LDE225 inhibits Hh signaling and induces tumor regression in animal models(More)
Receptor-interacting protein 2 (RIP2) is a serine-threonine kinase that mediates signaling for many receptors of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Toll like receptors (TLR) are an important component of the innate immune response. Stimulation of RIP2-deficient cells with ligands for TLR 2, 3 and 4 results in impaired cytokine production and decreased(More)
Interleukin-1 stimulation leads to the recruitment of MyD88, interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 1 (IRAK-1) and interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK-4) to the IL-1 receptor. The formation of the IL-1 receptor complex triggers a series of IRAK-1 autophosphorylations, which result in activation. IRAK-4 is upstream of IRAK-1 and may act as(More)
CARD12 (Ipaf/Clan) is an important regulator of caspase-1 activation. It belongs to the family of the nucleotide-binding site and leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) proteins. The NBS domain of the NBS-LRR proteins contains putative ATP/GTPase-specific P-loop and Mg2+-binding site motifs. However, the nucleotide-binding properties and the function of the NBS(More)
Inhibitors of JAK2 kinase are emerging as an important treatment modality for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). However, similar to other kinase inhibitors, resistance to JAK2 inhibitors may eventually emerge through a variety of mechanisms. Effective drug combination is one way to enhance therapeutic efficacy and combat resistance against JAK2(More)
Rip2 (Rick, Cardiak, CCK2, and CARD3) is a serine/threonine kinase containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) at the C terminus. Previous reports have shown that Rip2 is involved in multiple receptor signaling pathways that are important for innate and adaptive immune responses. However, it is not known whether Rip2 kinase activity is required for its(More)
Postchemotherapy relapse presents a major unmet medical need in acute myeloid leukemia (AML), where treatment options are limited. CD25 is a leukemic stem cell marker and a conspicuous prognostic marker for overall/relapse-free survival in AML. Rare occurrence of genetic alterations among PIM family members imposes a substantial hurdle in formulating a(More)
PRP4 kinase is known for its roles in regulating pre-mRNA splicing and beyond. Therefore, a wider spectrum of PRP4 kinase substrates could be expected. The role of PRP4 kinase in cancer is also yet to be fully elucidated. Attaining specific and potent PRP4 inhibitors would greatly facilitate the study of PRP4 biological function and its validation as a(More)
Inhibitors of JAK2 kinase are emerging as an important treatment modality for myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN). However, similar to other kinase inhibitors, resistance to JAK2 inhibitors may eventually emerge through a variety of mechanisms. Effective drug combination is one way to enhance therapeutic efficacy and combat resistance against JAK2(More)