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Based on two successfully and widely used control techniques in many industrial applications under normal (fault-free) operation conditions, the Gain-Scheduled Proportional-Integral-Derivative (GS-PID) control and Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) strategies have been extended, implemented, and experimentally tested on a quadrotor helicopter Unmanned(More)
BACKGROUND Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) permits site-specific therapeutic drug delivery within interstitial spaces at increased dosages through circumvention of the blood-brain barrier. CED is currently limited by suboptimal methodologies for monitoring the delivery of therapeutic agents that would permit technical optimization and enhanced(More)
BACKGROUND Surgical outcomes for intramedullary spinal cord tumors are affected by many variables including tumor histology and preoperative neurological function. OBJECTIVE To analyze the impact of tumor histology on neurological outcome in primary intramedullary spinal cord tumors. METHODS A retrospective review of 102 consecutive patients with(More)
Fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare demyelinating disorder, which most often occurs after an infection or vaccination. It frequently presents with focal neurologic signs and an altered sensorium. Patients often require critical care for airway management but are typically treated with medical therapy alone, including intravenous(More)
Intramedullary spinal cord tumors have low incidence rates but are associated with difficult treatment options. The majority of patients with these tumors can be initially treated with an attempted resection. Unfortunately, those patients who cannot undergo gross-total resection or have subtotal resection are left with few treatment options, such as(More)
We report a case of a closed outer-table parietal "ping-pong" skull fracture occurring in a 4 190-gram female infant born at 39 weeks and 5 days gestation after an uneventful Cesarean section (Apgar scores of 9 and 9 at one and five minutes). There was no maternal history of abdominal trauma during pregnancy and there were no complications or difficulties(More)
BACKGROUND Many decompression procedures involve complete or partial facetectomy. Spinal fusion usually stabilizes the motion segment after complete facetectomies. However, problems with fusion, such as adjacent-level degeneration, have increased interest in motion- preservation technologies. Facet arthroplasty may become an important posterior(More)
Current radiographic response criteria for brain tumors have difficulty describing changes surrounding postoperative resection cavities. Volumetric techniques may offer improved assessment, however usually are time-consuming, subjective and require expert opinion and specialized magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences. We describe the application of a(More)
OBJECTIVE There is significant debate in the literature regarding the optimal management of patients with the diagnosis of a spinal epidural abscess (SEA). Although some have advocated conservative treatment with intravenous antibiotics alone in select patients, recent studies have shown that patients treated without early surgery are more likely to have(More)
In this paper, an Active Fault-Tolerant Control (AFTC) technique is developed and applied to an unmanned quadrotor helicopter UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle, known also as Qball-X4) with 6 degrees of freedom based on a Gain-Scheduled Proportional-Integral Derivative (GS-PID) control technique. For implementing such an AFTC system, a Fault-Detection and(More)