Learn More
Freezing of gait is a common, debilitating feature of Parkinson's disease. We have studied gait planning in patients with freezing of gait, using motor imagery of walking in combination with functional magnetic resonance imaging. This approach exploits the large neural overlap that exists between planning and imagining a movement. In addition, it avoids(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the variability of transcranial magnetic stimulation paired pulse measurements of cortical excitability between subjects, between sessions and within subjects within sessions. METHODS In experiment 1, intracortical inhibition and facilitation were assessed with a fixed conditioning stimulus intensity (CSI) of 80% of active motor(More)
INTRODUCTION Freezing of gait (FOG) is both common and debilitating in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Future pathophysiology studies will depend critically upon adequate classification of patients as being either 'freezers' or 'non-freezers'. This classification should be based ideally upon objective confirmation by an experienced observer during(More)
Freezing of gait is a common and disabling symptom in patients with parkinsonism, characterised by sudden and brief episodes of inability to produce effective forward stepping. These episodes typically occur during gait initiation or turning. Treatment is important because freezing of gait is a major risk factor for falls in parkinsonism, and a source of(More)
Gait disorders are common and often devastating companions of ageing, leading to reductions in quality of life and increased mortality. Here, we present a clinically oriented approach to neurological gait disorders in the elderly population. We also draw attention to several exciting scientific developments in this specialty. Our first focus is on the(More)
BACKGROUND Under carefully controlled conditions, rhythmic auditory cueing can improve gait in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). In complex environments, attention paid to cueing might adversely affect gait, for example when a simultaneous task-such as avoiding obstacles-has to be executed. We primarily examined whether concurrent auditory cueing(More)
Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and freezing of gait (FOG) (freezers) demonstrate high gait variability. The objective of this study was to determine whether freezers display a higher variability of upper limb movements and elucidate if these changes correlate with gait. We were the first group to compare directly objectively measured gait and upper(More)
The clinical assessment of freezing of gait (FOG) provides great challenges. Patients often do not realize what FOG really is. Assessing FOG is further complicated by the episodic, unpredictable, and variable presentation, as well as the complex relationship with medication. Here, we provide some practical recommendations for a standardized clinical(More)
The pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait (FOG) in Parkinson's disease remains incompletely understood. Patients with FOG ("freezers") have a higher temporal variability and asymmetry of strides compared to patients without FOG ("non-freezers"). We aimed to extend this view, by assessing spatial variability and asymmetry of steps and interlimb(More)