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Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a common reaction to traumatic events. Many people recover in the ensuing months, but in a significant subgroup the symptoms persist, often for years. A cognitive model of persistence of PTSD is proposed. It is suggested that PTSD becomes persistent when individuals process the trauma in a way that leads to a sense of(More)
BACKGROUND The relative efficacy of different psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is unclear. AIMS To determine the efficacy of specific psychological treatments for chronic PTSD. METHOD In a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, eligible studies were assessed against methodological quality criteria(More)
A prospective longitudinal study assessed 967 consecutive patients who attended an emergency clinic shortly after a motor vehicle accident, again at 3 months, and at 1 year. The prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was 23.1% at 3 months and 16.5% at 1 year. Chronic PTSD was related to some objective measures of trauma severity, perceived(More)
Two studies of assault victims examined the roles of (a) disorganized trauma memories in the development of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), (b) peritraumatic cognitive processing in the development of problematic memories and PTSD, and (c) ongoing dissociation and negative appraisals of memories in maintaining symptomatology. In the cross-sectional(More)
Repetitive negative thinking (RNT) has been found to be involved in the maintenance of several types of emotional problems and has therefore been suggested to be a transdiagnostic process. However, existing measures of RNT typically focus on a particular disorder-specific content. In this article, the preliminary validation of a content-independent(More)
BACKGROUND Dissociative symptoms during trauma predict post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but they are often transient. It is controversial whether they predict chronic PTSD over and above what can be predicted from other post-trauma symptoms. AIMS To investigate prospectively the relationship between dissociative symptoms before, during and after a(More)
The effectiveness of psychological treatments for PTSD is likely to be enhanced by improved understanding of the factors involved in maintaining the disorder. Ehlers and Clark [A cognitive model of persistent posttraumatic stem disorder Behav. Res. Ther. 38 (2000) 319-345] recently proposed a cognitive model of maintenance. The current study aimed to(More)
Sixty patients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.: American Psychiatric Association, 1994) criteria for generalized social phobia were assigned to cognitive therapy (CT), fluoxetine plus self-exposure (FLU + SE), or placebo plus self-exposure (PLA + SE). At posttreatment (16 weeks), the medication blind was broken. CT and(More)
OBJECTIVES To examine the relationship of coping strategies and responses to intrusive memories with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric symptoms in ambulance service workers. METHOD Fifty-six ambulance service workers describe the most distressing aspects of their work and completed questionnaires designed to measure their coping(More)
In the wake of the terrorist attacks at the World Trade Center, more than 9,000 counselors went to New York City to offer aid to rescue workers, families, and direct victims of the violence of September 11, 2001. These mental health professionals assumed that many New Yorkers were at high risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and they(More)