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The lignin structure and enzyme activities of normal and brown-midrib (BMR-6) mutant lines of Sorghum bicolor have been compared to identify the enzyme(s) involved in the reduction of the lignin content of the mutant. The results indicate that cinnamyl-alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and caffeic acid O-methyltransferase are depressed in the BMR-6 line, whereas(More)
PURPOSE To determine the relationship between DNA damage and radiosensitivity at low doses (1-10 Gy) for the initial DNA damage and residual DNA damage remaining after 12-h repair. MATERIALS AND METHODS Eleven cell lines, normal human lung epithelial L132, HT29 human colon carcinoma, ATs4 human ataxia telangiectasia, normal CHO-K1 hamster,(More)
BACKGROUND In South Africa, stigma, discrimination, social visibility and fear of loss of confidentiality impede health facility-based HIV testing. With 50% of adults having ever tested for HIV in their lifetime, private, alternative testing options are urgently needed. Non-invasive, oral self-tests offer a potential for a confidential, unsupervised HIV(More)
Lack of point-of-care tests for tuberculosis (TB) result in diagnostic delay, and increased mortality and healthcare-related costs. The urine Determine(TM) TB-LAM point-of-care strip-test was evaluated in 335 prospectively-recruited hospitalised patients with suspected TB-HIV co-infection (group 1) and from 88 HIV-infected hospitalised patients with non-TB(More)
BACKGROUND Determination of the drug concentration required to kill 50% of the tumour cells (EC50) does not take into account the propensity of cells to undergo apoptosis and necrosis. These 2 parameters and the viable cells are here assessed by a flow cytometric (FC) approach using propidium iodide (PI) and FITC-Annexin V staining. MATERIALS AND METHODS(More)
INTRODUCTION Accurate quantification of mycobacterial load is important for the evaluation of patient infectiousness, disease severity and monitoring treatment response in human and in-vitro laboratory models of disease. We hypothesized that newer techniques would perform as well as solid media culture to quantify mycobacterial burden in laboratory(More)
The infection of cucumber leaves by Colletotrichum lagenarium was studied using cytological methods. Its progress in untreated plants was compared with that in plants in which systemic resistance had been induced by pre-infecting the first true leaf with the same fungus. In induced plants, a reduction of fungal development was observed at the leaf surface,(More)
The infection of tomato leaves by Phytophthora infestans was followed using cytological methods. Fungal ingress and plant reactions in untreated and induced resistant plants were studied. Systemic disease resistance was induced by a local pre-infection with the same fungus. Induction retarded fungal progress at the leaf surface, epidermis and in the(More)
The toxicity of the five methylxanthine derivatives, caffeine, pentoxifylline, A802710, propentofylline and A802715, was determined against the two human melanoma lines, Be11 and MeWo, and against the two human squamous cell carcinoma lines, 4197 and 4451, by vital dye staining assay. Pentoxifylline and A802710 emerge as the least toxic showing TD(50)(More)